advances in remote and autonomous platforms have led to great spatial and temporal increases in sampling, with more gains anticipated, there are still portions of the deep ocean critical to studies of climate change (the water column below 2000 meters, for example) that require sampling by ships. Research vessels are also needed for tracer experiments, for measurement of chemical components of the ocean that do not currently have sensors capable of autonomous use, and for studies of deep sea biodiversity and geology. The largest research vessels of the fleet will be required for global oceanographic surveys. In addition, ship-based calibration and validation will continue to be essential for both over-the-side instruments and satellite remote sensing data streams. Coastal regions that experience the greatest human impacts will need capable Regional and smaller class vessels. Research vessels will also be needed for geological explorations of the seafloor, including large-scale seafloor mapping, seismic surveys, and drilling. Finally, the academic fleet will continue to play a unique and essential role in atmospheric chemistry research programs, providing access to the marine atmosphere with a duration and payload unmatched by other platforms.

New technologies are likely to increase the need for research ships that are capable of supporting multidisciplinary, multi-investigator science (Chapter 3). Research vessels of the future will increasingly be used as platforms that coordinate the operations of multiple autonomous vehicles and/or remotely operated vehicles, deployment of over-the-side instruments, and collection of complex datasets. Highly qualified marine support staff will be increasingly required for successful cruises. Ocean observatories and autonomous vehicles will impact future vessel design requirements for acoustic communications, deck space, payload, berthing, launch and recovery, and stability. Precise positioning will be needed to support off-board vehicles. Deployment, recovery, and maintenance of autonomous vehicles, remotely operated vehicles, and moorings that support long-term ocean observatories will require adaptable, technologically capable ships with large laboratory and deck spaces. Servicing ocean observatories and launching and recovering autonomous vehicles will result in increased demands for ship time. There is a need for increased ship-to-shore bandwidth, in order to facilitate real-time, shore-based modeling and data analysis in support of underway programs, allow more participation of shore-based scientists, and increase opportunities for outreach.

Oceanographic research needs and advances in technology will drive many aspects of future oceanographic ship design (Chapter 4), increasing laboratory, deck space, and berthing. Research vessel design must accommodate evolving research trends and unforeseen technological advances, while continuing to meet specific disciplinary needs. Supporting future research needs will require both highly adaptable general purpose ships and spe-



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