suboptimal use of the full U.S. research fleet. Further integration and coordination with agencies that operate and support academic research vessels outside of the UNOLS consortium would optimize use of the entire U.S. research fleet.

Recommendation: NOAA should identify which of its 13,200 unmet annual ship day needs could be supported by the UNOLS fleet. NOAA and UNOLS should work together to develop a long-term plan to increase the usage of UNOLS ships in support of the NOAA mission.

Recommendation: The NSF Division of Ocean Sciences, the NSF Office of Polar Programs, and the U.S. Coast Guard should improve coordination of ship operations and support between the UNOLS and polar research fleets.

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