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APPENDIX C Additional Information Regarding the Content of the ACC Panel Reports Advancing the Science of Climate Change (NRC, 2010a) provides an overview of current scientific understanding of climate change across a range of different areas of interest to decision makers, and recommends steps to advance current understanding. The report focuses on scientific research needed to continue improving understand- ing of the causes and consequences of climate change as well as the improving and expanding the options available to respond to climate change. It also discusses key at- tributes and themes for an effective climate change research enterprise, including the research programs, observations, models, human resources, and other activities and tools that are needed. Some report tables of particular relevance include examples of science/research needs related to the following areas: Table 4.1 Improving fundamental understanding of climate forcings, feed- backs, responses, and thresholds in the earth system Table 4.2 Human behavior, institutions, and interactions with the climate system Table 4.3 Vulnerability and adaptation Table 4.4 Limiting the magnitude of climate change Table 4.5 Decision support in the context of climate change Table 4.6 Observations and observing systems Table 4.7 Improving projections, analyses, and assessments of climate change Limiting the Magnitude of Future Climate Change (NRC, 2010b) examines how the U.S. can best contribute to global efforts to limit the magnitude of future climate change—primarily through limiting emissions (and enhancing sinks) of GHGs. The report discusses the process of setting goals for U.S. emission reductions; the range of opportunities for limiting emissions from different sources and sectors; the policies needed to assure effective pursuit of “high-leverage” emission reduction opportuni- 109

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APPENDIX C ties; the resources and policies needed to accelerate technological innovation; the intersection of climate change limiting policies with other issues of major public interest; strategies for integrating federal climate change limiting polices with actions at the local, state, and international levels; and the challenges of developing policies that are both durable over time and flexible enough to be adapted in response to new knowledge. Some report tables of particular relevance include the following. Table 4.1 Specific policy instruments that can be used (in addition to, or in the absence of, a carbon pricing system) to drive CO2 emission reductions Table 3.1 Emission reduction options for non-CO2 greenhouse gases Table 5.1 Policy options to influence technology innovation Table 5.6 Examples of policy impediments to expanding the use of clean en- ergy technologies Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change (NRC, 2010c) describes, analyzes, and assesses actions and strategies to reduce vulnerability, increase adaptive capacity, im- prove resiliency, and promote successful adaptation to climate change. The report dis- cusses the complementary roles of federal adaptation efforts with grassroots-based, bottom-up actions and identifies the key research and information needs for promot- ing successful adaptation across a variety of sectors and covering a range of temporal and spatial scales. Some report tables of particular relevance include examples of specific options for facilitating adaptation (and identification of entities best poised to implement each option) for the following sectors: Table 3.2 Ecosystems Table 3.3 Agriculture and forestry Table 3.4 Water Table 3.5 Health Table 3.6 Transportation Table 3.7 Energy Table 3.8 Oceans and coasts Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change (NRC, 2010d) identifies the range of actors that are making decisions affecting our nation’s response to climate 110

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Appendix C change and reviews the different types of decision support tools that are available, or could be developed, to aid those decision makers, including assessments, databases, GHG accounting systems, and “climate services” institutions. It also reviews the dif- ferent types of decision frameworks that could be used to craft responses to climate change and discusses ways to improve climate change communication through educational systems, the media, and direct engagement with the public. Some report tables of particular relevance include the following. Table 2.5 Examples of federal departments and agencies that are affected by or involved in decisions about climate change Table 5.1. Information needs provided by climate services Table 6.2 Examples of existing GHG emission registries and informing principles 111

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