ties; the resources and policies needed to accelerate technological innovation; the intersection of climate change limiting policies with other issues of major public interest; strategies for integrating federal climate change limiting polices with actions at the local, state, and international levels; and the challenges of developing policies that are both durable over time and flexible enough to be adapted in response to new knowledge. Some report tables of particular relevance include the following.

Table 4.1 Specific policy instruments that can be used (in addition to, or in the absence of, a carbon pricing system) to drive CO2 emission reductions

Table 3.1 Emission reduction options for non-CO2 greenhouse gases

Table 5.1 Policy options to influence technology innovation

Table 5.6 Examples of policy impediments to expanding the use of clean energy technologies

Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change (NRC, 2010c)describes, analyzes, and assesses actions and strategies to reduce vulnerability, increase adaptive capacity, improve resiliency, and promote successful adaptation to climate change. The report discusses the complementary roles of federal adaptation efforts with grassroots-based, bottom-up actions and identifies the key research and information needs for promoting successful adaptation across a variety of sectors and covering a range of temporal and spatial scales. Some report tables of particular relevance include examples of specific options for facilitating adaptation (and identification of entities best poised to implement each option) for the following sectors:

Table 3.2 Ecosystems

Table 3.3 Agriculture and forestry

Table 3.4 Water

Table 3.5 Health

Table 3.6 Transportation

Table 3.7 Energy

Table 3.8 Oceans and coasts

Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change (NRC, 2010d)identifies the range of actors that are making decisions affecting our nation’s response to climate



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