1. Copenhagen Accord (; G-8 declaration (

2. e.g., see J. Hansen, M. Sato, P. Kharecha, D. Beerling, R. Berner, V. Masson-Delmotte, M. Pagani, M. Raymo, D. Royer, and J. Zachos, “Target atmospheric CO2: Where Should humanity aim?” (The Open Atmospheric Science Journal, 2008[2]:217-223, 2008).

3. e.g., NRC, Limiting the Magnitude and Advancing the Science.

4. Meinshausen et al., “Greenhouse-gas emission targets”; M. R. Allen, D. J. Frame, C. Huntingford, C. D. Jones, J. A. Lowe, M. Meinshausen, and N. Meinshausen, “Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne” (Nature 458:1163-1166, 2009); Wissenschaftlicher Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umweltveränderungen (WBGU, German Advisory Council on Global Change), Solving the Climate Dilemma: The Budget Approach (Berlin: WBGU, 2009).

5. e.g., see J. E. Aldy and R. N. Stavins, Post-Kyoto International Climate Policy: Implementing Architectures for Agreement. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010); J. B. Wiener and R. B. Stewart, Reconstructing Climate Policy: Beyond Kyoto (Washington, D. C.: American Enterprise Institute, 2003).

6. Clarke et al., “International climate policy architectures.”

7. B. C. Murray, A. J. Sommer, B. Depro, B. L. Sohngen, B. A. McCarl, D. Gillig, B. De Angelo, and K. Andrasko. 2005. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential in US Forestry and Agriculture (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency, 2005); IPCC, Climate Change 2007 WG1; NRC, Limiting the Magnitude; NRC, Advancing the Science.

8. A Renewable Portfolio Standard requires electric utilities and other retail electric providers to supply a specified minimum amount of customer load with electricity from eligible renewable energy sources, with the goal of stimulating market and technology development and making renewable energy economically competitive with conventional forms of electric power. Such standards are in place in 29 states and the District of Columbia. Some have proposed “no-carbon” standards, which would include nuclear power as well as renewables.

9. NRC, New Tools for Environmental Protection: Education, Information and Voluntary Measures (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002).

10. See, e.g., C. Fischer and R. G. Newell, “Environmental and technology policies for climate mitigation” (Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 55(2):142-162, 2008); T. H. Tietenberg, Emissions Trading: Principles and Practice. (Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, 2006); NRC, Limiting the Magnitude.

11. Trades of this kind regularly occur within the European Union’s Emissions Trading System. These trades require only the measurement of actual emissions, not the estimation of what emissions would have been absent the trade. On financial flows within the EU ETS, see Aldy and Stavins, Post-Kyoto.

12. EMF22: Clarke et al., “International climate policy architectures;” A. A. Fawcett, K. V. Calvin, F. C. De La Chesnaye, J. M. Reilly, and J. P. Weyant, “Overview of EMF 22 U.S. transition scenarios” (Energy Economics 31[Supplement 2]:S198-S211, 2009).

13. A concept within economic theory wherein the allocation of goods and services by a free market is not efficient.

14. See NRC, Limiting the Magnitude for detailed discussion.

15. Some examples discussed in M. A. Brown and S. Chandler, “Governing confusion: How statutes, fiscal policy, and regulations impede clean energy technologies” (Stanford Law and Policy Review 19[3]:472-509, 2008, available at, accessed March 1, 2011): Ten states have no statewide energy codes for residential construction or have codes that predate 1998; seven states do not have net metering for distributed power generation; 41 states have not decoupled electric utility profits from electricity sales; and all states ban private electric wires crossing public streets, which forces would-be power entrepreneurs to use their competitors’ wires.

16. See M. P. Vandenbergh, P. C. Stern, G. T. Gardner, T. Dietz, and J. M. Gilligan, “Implementing the behavioral wedge: Designing and adopting effective carbon emissions reduction programs” (Environmental Law Review 40:10547-10554, 2010); P. C. Stern, G. T Gardner, M. P Vandenbergh, T. Dietz, and J. M Gilligan, “Design principles for carbon emissions reduction programs” (Environmental Science and Technology 44[13]:4847-4848, 2010).

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