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human decisions would provide a scientific basis for management decisions such as land use zoning, fire and forest management, animal population control, infrastructure maintenance, and habitat restoration appropriate for maintaining national treasures such as Glacier National Park.

Repeat photography showing the retreat of the Grinnell glacier in Glacier National Park. The top photos were taken around 1940, and the bottom photos show the glacier six decades later. SOURCE: USGS (2008).

Repeat photography showing the retreat of the Grinnell glacier in Glacier National Park. The top photos were taken around 1940, and the bottom photos show the glacier six decades later. SOURCE: USGS (2008).

TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS

Impacts of Climate Change on Land-Based Ecosystems and Biodiversity

A series of place-based observations, meta-analyses, and models indicate that climate shifts have already begun to change the geographical range of plants and animal species on land (IPRC, 2007c). In the extreme, some plants and animals have experienced



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