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FIGURE 12.1 Lights of North America at night. Note the continuous lighting of extended concentrations of large cities (urban conglomerations), such as Washington to Boston, San Diego to Santa Barbara, and southwestern Lake Michigan. SOURCE: NASA (2001).

FIGURE 12.1 Lights of North America at night. Note the continuous lighting of extended concentrations of large cities (urban conglomerations), such as Washington to Boston, San Diego to Santa Barbara, and southwestern Lake Michigan. SOURCE: NASA (2001).

ROLE OF CITIES IN DRIVING CLIMATE CHANGE

Urbanized areas play an increasingly important role in driving climate change. For example, energy production and use generate about 87 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; of this amount, the majority is associated with electricity, heat, industrial production, transportation, and waste located in cities and other built-up areas (Folke et al., 1997). The concentration of emissions from urban areas also commonly generates major problems for urban air quality (e.g., Mage et al., 1996). The economies of scale associated with concentrating people in cities generally result in lower per capita emissions relative to nonurban settlements (Dodman, 2009; Satterthwaite, 2008). However, especially in developing economies, the shift to an urban economy and lifestyle increases expectations of consumption and triggers rapid urban expansion (Angel et al., 2005; Guneralp and Seto, 2008), thus enlarging the



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