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political linkages. Additional questions include the following: What legacy or lock-in effects, including infrastructure and governance, serve as impediments to responses to climate change? What co-benefits can be gained in the reconfiguration of cities? Which adaptation strategies synergistically benefit the goal of limiting climate change, which potentially counteract it, and how can the trade-offs be adjudicated effectively?


Linking air quality and climate change. Research is needed to provide information for decision making about air quality in the face of climate change. This includes measurements, understanding, modeling, and analyses of socioeconomic benefits and trade-offs associated with different GHG emissions-reduction strategies, including those that simultaneously benefit both climate and air quality (see also Chapter 11) and those that could exacerbate one issue while monitoring the other.


Developing effective decision-support tools. What do we know about effective decision making under uncertainty, especially when multiple governance units may be involved? Much research is needed in comparing the results of city action plans for climate change and identifying similarities and differences between and among small and large cities. Questions that need answers include which qualities of these different plans break or create path dependencies (lock-in, e.g., through infrastructure design, tax policies, or other institutions), and which lead to more flexible, adaptive responses to the risks of climate change.



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