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FIGURE 2.4 Climate forcing due to both human activities and natural processes, expressed in Watts per square meter (energy per unit area). Positive forcing corresponds to a warming effect. See Chapter 6 for further details. SOURCE: Forster et al. (2007).

FIGURE 2.4 Climate forcing due to both human activities and natural processes, expressed in Watts per square meter (energy per unit area). Positive forcing corresponds to a warming effect. See Chapter 6 for further details. SOURCE: Forster et al. (2007).

space, producing a small net cooling effect. Other human activities can influence local and regional climate but have only a minor influence on global climate.

Feedback Processes Determine How the Climate System Responds to Forcing

The response of the climate system to GHG increases and other climate forcing agents is strongly influenced by the effects of positive and negative feedback processes in the climate system. One example of a positive feedback is the water vapor feedback. Water vapor is the most important GHG in terms of its contribution to the natural green-



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