ing trade-offs and synergies among efforts to limit the magnitude of climate change and efforts to adapt to climate change. There are many possible co-benefits associated with some of the technologies and strategies discussed in this chapter and the companion reports (NRC, 2010a,c). For example, along with the benefits of reducing GHG emissions and climate change, use of almost every energy efficiency or lower-emissions energy alternative will yield co-benefits in terms of reduced air pollution and associated health impacts. Some approaches may also yield co-benefits through increasing national energy security or conserving water resources. On the other hand, negative effects or interactions are also possible. For example, energy efficiency programs could disadvantage the poor or marginalized communities if they are not carefully included, and biofuels programs or large-scale deployment of other renewable energy sources could lead to food insecurity, loss of biological diversity, competition for land and water resources, and other impacts. It is also possible that carbon pricing could disproportionately affect the poor. Further research is needed on the interactions between the broad range of such benefits and consequences.
Develop new integrated approaches that evaluate energy supply and use within a systems context and in relation to climate change and other societal concerns. To date, scientists from many disciplines have investigated and developed some understanding of new energy technologies and strategies, individual and institutional choices related to energy consumption and adoption of new technologies, and the benefits and unintended consequences of limiting and adaptation policies. As described in the previous three research needs, further research is still needed to advance our understanding of all these areas. It is critical that such research is not conducted in an isolated manner but rather using integrated approaches and analyses that investigate energy supply and use within the greater context of efforts to achieve sustainable development goals and other societal concerns.