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NOAA to establish an integrated program linking climate change and air quality. A research scientist with NOAA since 1984, Ravishankara has also been an adjunct professor of chemistry at the University of Colorado in Boulder since 1989. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Awards include his election as a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union, Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Fellow of the United Kingdom Royal Society of Chemistry, recipient of the Polanyi Medal and Centenary Lectureship of the Royal Society of Chemistry, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Stratospheric Ozone Protection Award, the Department of Commerce Silver Medal, and the U.S. Presidential Rank Award. Ravishankara received his doctorate in physical chemistry from the University of Florida in 1975. He has authored or co-authored over 300 scientific publications.


Raymond W. Schmitt is a senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, where he has spent most of his career. His research interests include oceanic mixing and microstructure, double-diffusive convection, the thermohaline circulation, oceanic freshwater budgets, the salinity distribution and its measurement, the use of acoustics for imaging fine structure, and the development of instrumentation. He is also interested in the intergenerational problem of sustaining long-term observations for climate. Dr. Schmitt has served on ocean sciences and polar program panels with the National Science Foundation, the Ocean Observing System Development Panel, the CLIVAR Science Steering Group, and the Ocean Studies Board. He was named a J.S. Guggenheim fellow in 1997 and has authored or co-authored over 75 publications. Dr. Schmitt earned his Ph.D. in physical oceanography from the University of Rhode Island and his B.S. in physics from Carnegie Mellon University.


B. L. (Billie Lee) Turner II (NAS) is Gilbert F. White Professor of Environment and Society in Arizona State University’s School of Geographical Sciences. For most of his career (1980-2008), he taught at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts, where he served as the Alice C. Higgins and Milton P. Professor of Environment and Society, and Director of the Graduate School of Geography. He received his B.A. and M.A. degrees from the University of Texas at Austin in 1968 and 1969, respectively, and his Ph.D. at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1974. Turner’s research interests center on human-environment relationships, specifically dealing with land change science, sustainability, tropical forests, and the ancient Maya. He is currently engaged in a long-term study on deforestation and sustainability in the southern Yucatan. Dr. Turner is associated with the development of land use/cover change studies exemplified in the international programs sponsored by the IGBP and IHDP. He has also promoted the emerging field of “sustainability science,” a major focus at Arizona State University. He is a former Guggenheim Fellow and Fellow of the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences, and recipient of research honors from various geographical



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