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13

 

TRANSPORTATION

 

333

   

 Role of Transportation in Driving Climate Change,

 

334

   

 Reducing Transportation-Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions,

 

336

   

 Impacts of Climate Change on Transportation,

 

342

   

 Science to Support Adapting to Climate Change in the Transportation Sector,

 

342

   

 Research Needs,

 

344

14

 

ENERGY SUPPLY AND USE

 

349

   

 Energy Consumption,

 

350

   

 Reductions in Energy Demand,

 

352

   

 Energy Efficiency Improvements,

 

353

   

 Energy Sources that Reduce Emissions of Greenhouse Gases,

 

354

   

 Carbon Dioxide Removal Approaches,

 

366

   

 Energy Carriers, Transmission, and Storage,

 

368

   

 Science to Support Technology Deployment,

 

369

   

 Likely Impacts of Climate Change on Energy System Operations,

 

369

   

 Science to Support Adapting to Climate Change,

 

373

   

 Research Needs,

 

374

15

 

SOLAR RADIATION MANAGEMENT

 

377

   

 History of Solar Radiation Management Proposals,

 

378

   

 Proposed Solar Radiation Management Approaches,

 

380

   

 Possible Unintended Consequences,

 

382

   

 Governance issues,

 

384

   

 Ethical Issues,

 

384

   

 Research Needs,

 

385

16

 

NATIONAL AND HUMAN SECURITY

 

389

   

 The Relationship Between Climate and National Security,

 

392

   

 Treaty Verification,

 

395

   

 The Relationship Between Climate and Human Security,

 

396

   

 Research Needs,

 

398

17

 

DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING, AND EVALUATING CLIMATE POLICIES

 

401

   

 Types of Climate Policies and Agreements,

 

402

   

 Research Challenges Associated with Policy Design and Implementation,

 

406

   

 Research Needs,

 

416



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