• have a large potential to reduce GHG emissions, the risks of nuclear power are also of significant concern and need to be successfully resolved.

  • Develop and demonstrate power plants equipped with carbon capture and sequestration technology. Carbon capture and sequestration could be a critically important option for our future energy system. It needs to be commercially demonstrated in a variety of full-scale power plant applications to better understand the costs involved and the technological, social, and regulatory barriers that may arise.

  • Advance low-GHG-emitting transportation options. Near-term opportunities exist to reduce GHGs from the transportation sector through increasing vehicle efficiency, supporting shifts to energy-efficient modes of passenger and freight transport, and advancing low-GHG fuels.

  1. Accelerate the retirement, retrofitting, or replacement of emissions-intensive infrastructure. Transitioning to a low-carbon energy system requires clear and credible policies that enable not only the deployment of new technologies but also the retrofitting, retiring, or replacement of existing emissions-intensive infrastructure. If immediate action is not initiated, the existing emissions-intensive capital stock will rapidly consume the U.S. emissions budget.

  2. Create new technology choices. See discussion in Chapter 5.

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