FIGURE 5.1 A model projection of the future price of CO2 emissions under two scenarios: a “reference” case that assumes continuation of historical rates of technological improvements, and an “advanced” case with more rapid technological change. The absolute costs are highly uncertain, but studies clearly indicate that costs are reduced dramatically when advanced technologies are available. SOURCE: Adapted from Kyle et al. (2009).

FIGURE 5.1 A model projection of the future price of CO2 emissions under two scenarios: a “reference” case that assumes continuation of historical rates of technological improvements, and an “advanced” case with more rapid technological change. The absolute costs are highly uncertain, but studies clearly indicate that costs are reduced dramatically when advanced technologies are available. SOURCE: Adapted from Kyle et al. (2009).

  • enable a device—whether a vehicle, machine, or appliance—to use energy more efficiently, thereby reducing its energy use and GHG emissions per unit of useful product or service (such as a vehicle mile of travel).

  • create or utilize alternative energy carriers and chemicals that emit fewer GHGs per unit of useful product or service (e.g., renewable energy or new fertilizers).

  • create alternative means of meeting needs, in ways that are less GHG-intensive, for instance, by using substitute products or materials, by changing agricultural practices, or by making broader systems-level changes such as replacing vehicle and air travel with teleconferencing, or using Internet-based delivery services in lieu of traveling to a store.

Efforts to stimulate technological innovation must be broad enough to affect this full range of possibilities and may also encompass innovations in social and institutional



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement