TABLE 5.1 Policy Options That Can Influence Technology Innovation

“Technology Policy” Optionsa

Regulatory Policy Options

Direct Government Funding of Knowledge Generation

Direct or Indirect Support for Commercialization and Production

Knowledge Diffusion and Learning

Economy-wide Measures and Sector or Technology-Specific Regulations and Standards

  • R&D contract with private firms (fully funded or cost shared)

  • R&D contracts and grants with nonprofits

  • Intramural R&D in government laboratories

  • R&D contracts with consortia or collaborations

  • R&D tax credits

  • Patents

  • Production subsidies or tax credits for firms bringing new technologies to market

  • Tax credits, rebates, or payments for purchasers and users of new technologies

  • Government procurement of new or advanced technologies

  • Demonstration projects

  • Loan guarantees

  • Monetary prizes

  • Education and training

  • Codification and diffusion of technical knowledge (e.g, via interpretation and validation of R&D results; screening; support for databases)

  • Technical standards

  • Technology/industry extension programs

  • Publicity, persuasion, and consumer information

  • Emissions tax

  • Cap-and-trade program

  • Performance standards (for emission rates, efficiency, or other measures of performance)

  • Fuels tax

  • Portfolio standards

a Based on CSPO and CATF (2009).

financial and “human capital” resources needed to support a major initiative on GHG-related technological innovation. In addition, accelerating technological innovations that reduce GHG emissions will require a variety of policy drivers—to promote R&D, to help commercialize and bring new technologies to the marketplace, and to establish and expand markets for low-GHG technologies. Thus, we also review below current U.S. policies available to support these objectives. Based on the findings from this review, we suggest additional policy measures that are most needed.

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