APPENDIX D
Acronyms, Energy Units, and Chemical Formulas

ACRONYMS

AEF America’s Energy Future

ARRA American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

BEA Bureau of Economic Analysis

BEST Bronx Environmental Stewardship Training

BTAs Border Tax Adjustments

CAA Clean Air Act

CAFE Corporate Average Fuel Economy

CBO Congressional Budget Office

CCCSTI Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration

CCS Carbon capture and storage

CDM Clean Development Mechanism

CER Certified emission reduction

DOD U.S. Department of Defense

DOE U.S. Department of Energy

DOI U.S. Department of Interior

DOS U.S. Department of State

EIA Energy Information Administration

EISA Energy Independence and Security Act

EMF Energy Modeling Forum

EPA Environmental Protection Agency

EPRI Electric Power Research Institute

EU ETS European Union Emissions Trading Scheme

GAO Government Accountability Office

GDP Gross domestic product

GHG Greenhouse gas

GWP Global warming potential

IEA International Energy Agency

IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

LCFS Low Carbon Fuel Standards



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APPENdiX d Acronyms, Energy Units, and Chemical Formulas ACRONYMS AEF America’s Energy Future ARRA American Recovery and Reinvestment Act BEA Bureau of Economic Analysis BEST Bronx Environmental Stewardship Training BTAs Border Tax Adjustments CAA Clean Air Act CAFE Corporate Average Fuel Economy CBO Congressional Budget Office CCCSTI Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration CCS Carbon capture and storage CDM Clean Development Mechanism CER Certified emission reduction DOD U.S. Department of Defense DOE U.S. Department of Energy DOI U.S. Department of Interior DOS U.S. Department of State EIA Energy Information Administration EISA Energy Independence and Security Act EMF Energy Modeling Forum EPA Environmental Protection Agency EPRI Electric Power Research Institute EU ETS European Union Emissions Trading Scheme GAO Government Accountability Office GDP Gross domestic product GHG Greenhouse gas GWP Global warming potential IEA International Energy Agency IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change LCFS Low Carbon Fuel Standards 

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APPENdiX d LED Light-emitting diode LUCF Land-use change and forestry NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NRC National Research Council NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory NSF National Science Foundation OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development R&D Research and development REDD Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing nations RFS Renewable Fuels Standard RGGI Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative RPS Renewable Portfolio Standard S&E Science and engineering TRB Transportation Research Board UNEP United Nations Environmental Program UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture VMT Vehicle miles traveled WCI Western Climate Initiative WTO World Trade Organization CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons CH4 Methane CO2 Carbon dioxide HFC Hydrofluorocarbons NMHCs Nonmethane hydrocarbons NOx Nitrogen oxides O3 Tropospheric ozone PFCs Perfluorocarbons PM Particulate matter N 2O Nitrous oxide SF6 Sulfur hexafluoride SO2 Sulfur dioxide VOC Volatile organic compounds 

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Appendix D UNITS USED (FOR ENERGY, POWER, MATTER) J: joule. The energy of one watt of power flowing for one second GJ: gigajoule, 109 joules EJ : exajoule, 1018 joules BTU: British thermal unit. The energy to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. quad: a quadrillion (a million-billion, or 1015 ) BTUs, equal to 1.055 × 1018 joules (1.055 EJ). A unit commonly used in discussing global and national energy budgets W: watt, a unit of electric power (= 1 J of energy per second) kW: kilowatt, a thousand (103 ) Watts GW: gigawatt, a billion (109 ) Watts TW: terawatt, a trillion (1012) Watts kWh: kilowatt-hour, or the amount of energy when one kW is used for one hour. Equivalent to about 3,400 BTU or 3,600,000 Joules Metric ton (i.e., of CO2) is one thousand kilograms, or about 2,200 pounds MMT: million metric tons of CO2 Mt: megaton, a million (106) metric tons Gt: gigaton, a billion (109) metric tons Tg: teragram, a billion (109) kilograms, or one million metric tons ppm: parts per million, a measure of atmospheric concentration of some greenhouse gases Barrel (oil): ~42 gallons. The United States uses about 20 million barrels of oil each day. 

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