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Limiting the Magnitude of Future Climate Change APPENDIX D Acronyms, Energy Units, and Chemical Formulas ACRONYMS AEF America’s Energy Future ARRA American Recovery and Reinvestment Act BEA Bureau of Economic Analysis BEST Bronx Environmental Stewardship Training BTAs Border Tax Adjustments CAA Clean Air Act CAFE Corporate Average Fuel Economy CBO Congressional Budget Office CCCSTI Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration CCS Carbon capture and storage CDM Clean Development Mechanism CER Certified emission reduction DOD U.S. Department of Defense DOE U.S. Department of Energy DOI U.S. Department of Interior DOS U.S. Department of State EIA Energy Information Administration EISA Energy Independence and Security Act EMF Energy Modeling Forum EPA Environmental Protection Agency EPRI Electric Power Research Institute EU ETS European Union Emissions Trading Scheme GAO Government Accountability Office GDP Gross domestic product GHG Greenhouse gas GWP Global warming potential IEA International Energy Agency IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change LCFS Low Carbon Fuel Standards
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Limiting the Magnitude of Future Climate Change LED Light-emitting diode LUCF Land-use change and forestry NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NRC National Research Council NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory NSF National Science Foundation OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development R&D Research and development REDD Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing nations RFS Renewable Fuels Standard RGGI Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative RPS Renewable Portfolio Standard S&E Science and engineering TRB Transportation Research Board UNEP United Nations Environmental Program UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture VMT Vehicle miles traveled WCI Western Climate Initiative WTO World Trade Organization CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons CH4 Methane CO2 Carbon dioxide HFC Hydrofluorocarbons NMHCs Nonmethane hydrocarbons NOx Nitrogen oxides O3 Tropospheric ozone PFCs Perfluorocarbons PM Particulate matter N2O Nitrous oxide SF6 Sulfur hexafluoride SO2 Sulfur dioxide VOC Volatile organic compounds
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Limiting the Magnitude of Future Climate Change UNITS USED (FOR ENERGY, POWER, MATTER) J: joule. The energy of one watt of power flowing for one second GJ: gigajoule, 109 joules EJ : exajoule, 1018 joules BTU: British thermal unit. The energy to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. quad: a quadrillion (a million-billion, or 1015 ) BTUs, equal to 1.055 × 1018 joules (1.055 EJ). A unit commonly used in discussing global and national energy budgets W: watt, a unit of electric power (= 1 J of energy per second) kW: kilowatt, a thousand (103 ) Watts GW: gigawatt, a billion (109 )Watts TW: terawatt, a trillion (1012) Watts kWh: kilowatt-hour, or the amount of energy when one kW is used for one hour. Equivalent to about 3,400 BTU or 3,600,000 Joules Metric ton (i.e., of CO2) is one thousand kilograms, or about 2,200 pounds MMT: million metric tons of CO2 Mt: megaton, a million (106) metric tons Gt: gigaton, a billion (109) metric tons Tg: teragram, a billion (109)kilograms, or one million metric tons ppm: parts per million, a measure of atmospheric concentration of some greenhouse gases Barrel (oil): ~42 gallons. The United States uses about 20 million barrels of oil each day.
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