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ANA (American Nurses Association). 2008. Adapting standards of care under extreme conditions: Guidance for professionals during disasters, pandemics, and other extreme emergencies. http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/HealthcareandPolicyIssues/DPR/TheLawEthicsofDisasterResponse/AdaptingStandardsofCare.aspx (accessed September 8, 2009).

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DeBruin, D., E. Parilla, J. Liaschenko, M. Marshall, J. Leider, D. Brunnquell, J. Garrett, and D. Vawter. 2009. Implementing ethical frameworks for rationing scarce health resources in Minnesota during severe influenza pandemic: Preliminary report. http://www.ahc.umn.edu/mnpanflu/prod/groups/ahc/@pub/@ahc/@ethicsmpep/documents/content/ahc_content_090510.pdf (accessed September 9, 2009).

Devereaux, A. V., J. R. Dichter, M. D. Christian, N. N. Dubler, C. E. Sandrock, J. L. Hick, T. Powell, J. A. Geiling, D. E. Amundson, T. E. Baudendistel, D. A. Braner, M. A. Klein, K. A. Berkowitz, J. R. Curtis, and L. Rubinson. 2008. Definitive care for the critically ill during a disaster: A framework for



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A References AHRQ (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality). 2005. Altered standards of care in mass casualty events. AHRQ Publication No. 05-0043. Rockville, MD: AHRQ. ANA (American Nurses Association). 2008. Adapting standards of care under extreme conditions: Guidance for professionals during disasters, pandem- ics, and other extreme emergencies. http://www.nursing world.org/MainMenuCategories/HealthcareandPolicyIssues/DPR/TheLaw EthicsofDisasterResponse/AdaptingStandardsofCare.aspx (accessed Sep- tember 8, 2009). California Department of Public Health. 2008. Standards and guidelines for healthcare surge during emergencies. http://bepreparedcalifornia. ca.gov/EPO/CDPHPrograms/PublicHealthPrograms/EmergencyPrepared nessOffice/EPOProgramsServices/Surge/StandGuide/SSG1.htm (accessed September 8, 2009). CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services). 2002. MDS 2.0 for nursing homes. http://www.cms.hhs.gov/nursinghomequalityinits/20_NHQIMDS 20.asp (accessed September 9, 2009). Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. 2009 (unpublished). Guidance for alterations in the healthcare system during a moderate to se- vere influenza pandemic. DeBruin, D., E. Parilla, J. Liaschenko, M. Marshall, J. Leider, D. Brunnquell, J. Garrett, and D. Vawter. 2009. Implementing ethical frameworks for ration- ing scarce health resources in Minnesota during severe influenza pan- demic: Preliminary report. http://www.ahc.umn.edu/mnpanflu/prod/ groups/ahc/@pub/@ahc/@ethicsmpep/documents/content/ahc_content_090 510.pdf (accessed September 9, 2009). Devereaux, A. V., J. R. Dichter, M. D. Christian, N. N. Dubler, C. E. Sandrock, J. L. Hick, T. Powell, J. A. Geiling, D. E. Amundson, T. E. Baudendistel, D. A. Braner, M. A. Klein, K. A. Berkowitz, J. R. Curtis, and L. Rubinson. 2008. Definitive care for the critically ill during a disaster: A framework for 65

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67 APPENDIX A New Jersey Hospital Association. 2008. Planning today for a pandemic tomor- row: Video vignettes. http://www.njha.com/paninf/index.aspx (accessed September 8, 2009). O’Laughlin, D. T., and J. L. Hick. 2008. Ethical issues in resource triage. Respir Care 53(2):190–197; discussion 197–200. Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care. 2008. Ontario health plan for an influenza pandemic. http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/ program/emu/pan_flu/pan_flu_plan.html#section (accessed September 8, 2009). Phillips, S., and A. Knebel, eds. 2007. Mass medical care with scarce resources: A community planning guide. AHRQ Publication No. 07-0001. Rockville, MD: AHRQ. Powell, T., K. C. Christ, and G. S. Birkhead. 2008. Allocation of ventilators in a public health disaster. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2(1):20–26. PricewaterhouseCoopers. 2007. Closing the seams: Developing an integrated approach to health system disaster preparedness. http://www.pwc. com/us/en/healthcare/publications/closing-the-seams.jhtml (accessed No- vember 2, 2009). The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Public Health. 2007 (un- published). Guidelines for the development of altered standards of care for influenza pandemic. The Utah Hospitals and Health Systems Association. 2009. Utah pandemic in- fluenza hospital and ICU triage guidelines. Version 1. http://www.pandemicflu.utah.gov/plan/med_triage011009.pdf (accessed September 8, 2009). VHA (Veterans Health Administration). 2008a (unpublished). Tertiary triage protocol for allocation of scarce life-saving resources in VHA during an in- fluenza pandemic. VHA. 2008b. VA staff discussion forums on ethics issues in pandemic influenza preparedness. http://www.ethics.va.gov/activities/pandemic_influenza_pre paredness.asp (accessed September 30, 2009). VHA. 2009a (unpublished). Draft guidance: Meeting the challenge of pandemic influenza: Ethical guidance for VHA leaders and clinicians. VHA. 2009b. IntegratedEthics Program. http://www.ethics.va.gov/integrated/ ethics/index.asp (accessed September 30, 2009). Virginia Department of Health. 2008. Virginia Hospital and Healthcare Asso- ciation Altered Standards of Care Workgroup: Critical resource shortages: A planning guide. http://www.troutmansanders.com/files/upload/Critical% 20Resource%20Shortages-A%20Planning%20Guide.pdf (accessed Sep- tember 8, 2009). Walter, L. C., R. J. Brand, S. R. Counsell, R. M. Palmer, C. S. Landefeld, R. H. Fortinsky, and K. E. Covinsky. 2001. Development and validation of a prognostic index for 1-year mortality in older adults after hospitalization. JAMA 285(23):2987–2994.

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68 CRISIS STANDARDS OF CARE Washington State Department of Health’s Altered Standards of Care Work- group. 2008 (unpublished). Report and recommendations to the Department of Health Secretary on establishing altered standards of care during an in- fluenza pandemic. Wynia, M. 2009. IOM Committee on Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations. Paper presented at IOM Committee on Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations, September 2, Washington, DC.