For solar, an important need is a life-cycle analysis of the upstream activities that quantifies the possible releases of toxic materials and their damages; another is a better understanding of the externalities that would accompany dedicating tracts of land to solar panels.
For transmission lines needed in a transition to a national grid system, better estimates are needed of both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of negative and positive externalities that would accompany this transition.
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2 Energy for Electricity ."
Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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