TABLE 6-6 Annual Averages for Pipelines per Ton Miles, 2002-2006

Pipeline Type

Ton Miles of Freight Per Year (millions)

Number of Incidents (Per Billion Ton Miles)

Fatalities (Per Billion Ton Miles)

Injuries (Per Billion Ton Miles)

Property Damage (Per Million Ton Miles)

Net Barrels Lost (Per Billion Ton Miles)

Hazardous liquid

593,560

0.2

0.003

0.008

$166

100

natural gas

336,493

0.5

0.044

0.140

$747

NA

Gathering

3,365

22.3

0.297

1.367

$24,077

NA

Transmission

67,299

0.1

0.000

0.015

$607

NA

Distribution

265,829

0.4

0.052

0.156

$486

NA

Total

930,053

0.7

0.047

0.149

$913

100

NOTE: Estimates of ton miles for components of the natural gas pipeline system are based on distribution of pipeline miles from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Property damage estimates are in 2007 dollars.

SOURCE: BTS 2009.

property damage per thousand barrels of oil. For natural gas, the numbers are 0.72 fatalities and 2.30 injuries per trillion cubic feet of natural gas consumed and $12 of property damage per million cubic feet of natural gas consumed. The property damage and injuries are modest and probably internalized to a great extent. These damages are not considered in the subsequent analysis.

Nuclear Power Accidents

In addition to potential damages associated with generation of electricity through nuclear technologies (see Chapter 2), there are several potential external costs associated with the potential for a nuclear accident. Unlike the situation with other potential damages associated with nuclear technologies, these possibilities are distinctive in that two well-studied accidents have already occurred (Three Mile Island and Chernobyl), providing the basis for widespread public concern about the issue. Specifically, the following considerations have been raised:

  1. To what extent does the existing technology alter the probability and damage functions associated with an accident for the existing facilities or those under design.

  2. To the extent that the above can be quantified, to what extent have they been internalized by existing regulations, insurance requirements (including liability costs required by regulations) or other market mechanisms.



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