TABLE 7-1 Relative Categories of Health and Other Nonclimate-Change Damages 2005 and 2030 for Major Categories of Light-Duty Vehicle Fuels and Technologies (Damage Estimates Based on 2007 U.S. Dollars)

Category of Aggregate Damage Estimates (Cents/VMT)

2005

2030

1.10-1.19

 

CNG

Diesel with low sulfur and biodiesel

1.20-1.29

E85 herbaceous

E85 corn stover

CNG

Grid-independent HEV

E85 corn stover

E85 herbaceous

1.30-1.39

Conventional gasoline and RFG

E10

Hydrogen gaseous

Conventional gasoline and RFG

E10

E85 corn

1.40-1.49

Diesel with low sulfur and biodiesel

Grid-dependent HEV

Electric vehicle

1.50-1.59

E85 corn

Grid-independent HEV

Grid-dependent HEV

>1.60

Electric vehicle

Hydrogen gaseous

ABBREVIATIONS: VMT, vehicle miles traveled; E85, ethanol 85% blend; E10, ethanol 10% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, compressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline.

  • Diesel, which has relatively high damages in 2005, has one of the lowest levels of damage in 2030. This result is due to the substantial reductions in both PM and NOx emissions that a diesel vehicle has been required to attain after the 2006 introduction of low-sulfur fuel.

  • Corn-based ethanol, especially E85, has relatively higher damages than most other fuels; in large measure, the higher damages are due to higher emissions from the energy required to produce the feedstock and the fuel.

  • Grid-dependent HEVs and electric vehicles have somewhat higher damages in both 2005 and 2030. As noted in Chapter 3, these vehicles have important advantages over all other fuel and technology combinations when only damages from operations are considered. However, the damages associated with the present and projected mixes of electricity generation (the latter still being dominated by coal and natural gas in 2030, albeit at significantly lower rates of emissions) add substantially to the life-cycle damages. In addition, the increased energy associated with battery manu-



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