TABLE 7-3 Monetized Damages Per Unit of Energy-Related Activitya

Energy-Related Activity (Fuel Type)

Nonclimate Damage

Climate Damages (per ton CO2-eq)c

CO2-eq Intensity

At $10

At $30

At $100

Electricity generation (coal)

3.2 cents/kWh

2 lb/kWh

1 cent/kWh

3 cents/kWh

10 cents/kWh

Electricity generation (natural gas)

0.16 cents/kWh

1 lb/kWh

0.5 cent/kWh

1.5 cents/kWh

5 cents/kWh


1.2 to >1.7 cents/VMT

0.3 to >1.3 lb/VMT

0.15 to >.65 cent/VMT

0.45 to >2 cents/VMT

1.5 to >6 cents/VMT

Heat production (natural gas)

11 cents/MCF

140 lb/MCF

70 cents/MCF

210 cents/MCF

700 cents/MCF

aBased on emission estimates for 2005. Damages are expressed in 2007 U.S. dollars. Damages that have not been quantified and monetized are not included.

bTransportation fuels include E85 herbaceous, E85 corn stover, hydrogen gaseous, E85 corn, diesel with biodiesel, grid-independent HEV, grid-dependent HEV, electric vehicle, CNG, conventional gasoline and RFG, E10, low-sulfur diesel, tar sands. (See Table 7-1 for relative categories of nonclimate damages and Table 7-2 for relative categories of GHG emissions.)

cOften called the “social cost of carbon.”

ABBREVIATIONS: CO2-eq, carbon dioxide equivalent; VMT, vehicle miles traveled; MCF, thousand cubic feet; E85, ethanol 85% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, compressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline.

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