The studies that provide the concentration-response functions for the remaining welfare effects are listed in Table C-2. Because PM2.5 is a subset of PM10, APEEP avoids double counting of damages due to PM2.5 and PM10. Specifically, APEEP estimates mortality impacts associated with emissions of PM2.5, and the model measures chronic morbidity impacts of PM10. In reporting the morbidity damages due to emissions of PM10, APEEP nets out the mortality damages due to PM2.5. In effect, the damages for PM10 are expressed as PM10-PM2.5.

TABLE C-2 Concentration-Response Studies Used in APEEP

Welfare Effect

Pollutant

Study

Crop loss

O3

Lesser et al. 1990

Timber loss

O3

Reich 1987; Pye 1988

Materials depreciation

SO2

Atteras and Haagenrud 1982; ICP 2000

Visibility

PM10

Muller and Mendelsohn 2006

Forest recreation

SO2, NOx, O3

Muller and Mendelsohn 2006

TABLE C-3 Value of Human Health Effects in APEEPa

Health Event

Unit

U.S. Dollars

Chronic Exposure Mortality

Case

5,910,000

Chronic Bronchitis

Case

320,000

Chronic Asthma

Case

30,800

General Respiratory

Hospital Admission

8,300

General Cardiac

Hospital Admission

17,526

Asthma

Hospital Admission

6,700

COPD

Hospital Admission

11,276

Ischemic Heart Disease

Hospital Admission

18,210

Asthma

ER Visit

240

aValues are in 2000 U.S. dollars; see Muller and Mendelsohn 2007.

SOURCE: Modified from Muller and Mendelsohn 2006.

TABLE C-4 Value of Nonmarket Impacts of Air Pollution

Welfare Effect

U.S. Dollarsa

Location

Source

Recreation visibility (in-region)

170

Southwest

Chestnut and Rowe 1990

Recreation visibility (out-region)

135

Southwest

Chestnut and Rowe 1990

Recreation visibility (in-region)

80

Southeast

Chestnut and Rowe 1990

Recreation visibility (out-region)

50

Southeast

Chestnut and Rowe 1990

Residential visibility (in-region)

174

Eastern

McClelland et al. 1993

Forest recreation visit

63

All

Kengen 1997

aValues are in 2000 U.S. dollars; see Muller and Mendelsohn 2007.

SOURCE: Modified from Muller and Mendelsohn 2006.



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