are multiplied by the APEEP county and pollutant factors (dollar damages per gram of pollutant, which may be weighted averages for the PADD region). Furthermore, the APEEP factors are reported in dollars of damage of emission for mortality, morbidity, and other damages (for example, agricultural or visibility impairment). For each vehicle and fuel combination, the life-cycle emission factors are joined with the APEEP pollutant damage factors for mortality, morbidity, and other to determine total damages for each county. The result is a mortality-morbidity-and-other dollar damages for each county and each vehicle type (light-duty autos, truck 1, and truck 2) in both 2005 and 2030.

Damages Related to Electric Vehicles and Grid-Dependent Hybrids

For the vehicle-manufacturing component and the fuel feedstock (for example, coal or natural gas) component of the life cycles of electric vehicles (EVs) and grid-dependent hybrid vehicles (GD-HVs), the GREET model’s estimates of emissions per VMT were paired with results from the APEEP model, a process that provided estimates of the physical health and other nonclimate-change-related effects and monetary damages per ton of emissions that form criteria air pollutants. However, the allocation of electric-utility-related damages to the vehicle operations and electricity production components of the life cycles were approximated by applying a GREET-generated kWh/VMT and applying that to the estimated average national damages per kWh from the electricity analysis presented in Chapter 2.

The committee used 1.59 cents/kWh for 2005 and 0.79 cents/kWh for 2030 for the damages due to producing (not consuming) electricity for both EVs and GD-HEVs. Those values were obtained by determining the aggregate marginal damages for coal-fired and natural gas plants based on their shares of net generation and the average marginal damages for each type of plant. For example, for 2005: [0.485 (coal share of net generation) × 3.2 cents/kWh] + [0.213 (natural gas share of net generation) × 0.16 cents/kWh] = 1.59 cents/kWh.

We estimated the fuel (electricity generation) component damages based on the damages associated with producing electricity at the rate of 0.52 kWh/VMT, and the fuel damages for 2005 were calculated as follows: 0.52 kWh/VMT × 1.59 cents/kWh = 0.83 cents/VMT. For 2030, the estimate for fuel damage is 0.31 cents/VMT. For the vehicle operation component, we estimated damage associated with a 10% loss of electricity over transmission and distribution lines (for example, 0.05 kWh/VMT for 2005) (DOE 2009).

A similar approach was used for estimating the electricity-related dam-



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