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Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use
FIGURE S-1 Distribution of aggregate damages among the 406 coal-fired power plants analyzed in this study. In computing this chart, plants were sorted from smallest to largest based on damages associated with each plant. The lowest decile (10% increment) represents the 40 plants with the smallest damages per plant (far left). The decile of plants that produced the most damages is on the far right. The figure on the top of each bar is the average damage across all plants of damages associated with sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matter. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included.
per kWh are a function of the emissions intensity of electricity generation from coal (for example, pounds [lb] of SO2 per megawatt hour [MWh]), which in turn depends on future regulation of power-plant emissions. Based on government estimates, net power generation from coal in 2030 is expected to be 20% higher on average than in 2005. Despite projected increases in damages per ton of pollutant resulting mainly from population and income growth—average damages per kWh from coal plants (weighted by electricity generation) are estimated to be 1.7 cents per kWh in 2030 as compared with 3.2 cents per kWh in 2005. This decrease derives from the assumption that SO2 emissions per MWh will fall by 64% and that NOx and PM emissions per MWh will each fall by approximately 50%.