4-3

 

Residential Sector Natural Gas Use for Heat: Regional Damage Estimates (Excluding Greenhouse Gases) (Cents/MCF). (Damage Estimated from 2002 NEI Data for 3,100 Counties),

 

236

4-4

 

Commercial Sector Natural Gas Use for Heat: National Damage Estimates from Air Pollutants (Excluding Greenhouse Gases) (Cents/MCF),

 

237

5-1

 

Characteristics of Post-Third Assessment Report (TAR) Stabilization Scenarios and Resulting Long-Term Equilibrium Global Average Temperature and the Sea-Level Rise Component from Thermal Expansion Only,

 

254

5-2

 

Climate-Related Observed Trends of Various Components of the Global Freshwater Systems,

 

265

5-3

 

Examples of Possible Impacts of Climate Change Due to Changes in Extreme Weather and Climate Events, Based on Projections to the Mid- to Late 21st Century,

 

268

5-4

 

Water Availability Effects from Climate Change for Selected Studies (Percent of Contemporaneous GDP Around 2100),

 

271

5-5

 

Values of the Benchmarking Parameter,

 

274

5-6

 

Benchmark Sea-Level Rise Estimates in FUND,

 

276

5-7

 

Estimates of Total Damage Due to Climate Change from Benchmark Warming (Percent Change in Annual GDP),

 

295

5-8

 

Marginal Global Damages from GHG Emissions: Estimates from Widely Used Models,

 

297

5-9

 

Indicative Marginal Global Damages from Current GHG Emissions ($/Ton CO2-eq),

 

302

5-10

 

Illustration of Ranges of Climate-Related Damages for Selected Categories of Energy Use in the United States, 2005,

 

307

6-1

 

Net Stock of Energy-Related Fixed Assets in 2007 ($Billions),

 

310

6-2

 

Estimates of the Average Cost of Outages,

 

312

6-3

 

LNG Infrastructure and Safety Record,

 

318

6-4

 

Average Number and Volume of Oil Spills on U.S. Soil, 1990-1998,

 

320

6-5

 

Annual Averages for Significant Pipeline Incidents, 2002-2006,

 

322

6-6

 

Annual Averages for Pipelines per Ton Miles, 2002-2006,

 

323

6-7

 

U.S. Oil Dependence,

 

326

7-1

 

Relative Categories of Health and Other Nonclimate-Change Damages 2005 and 2030 for Major Categories of Light-Duty Vehicle Fuels and Technologies,

 

350



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement