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until June in Canton (Table A12-1; Cadbury, 1920; Chun, 1919; Shortridge, 1983). Infection there was mild, and no influenza deaths were recorded at the Canton Hospital. Consonant with the time of the Canton outbreak, more solid data come from Hong Kong 110km to the southeast, where influenza deaths abruptly started in June, continuing thereafter throughout the year (Table A12-2; Shortridge, 1983). The effects of the outbreak were most severe from 1918 to

TABLE A12-1 China H1N1—Then and Now

1918

H1N1-like virusa

South

Virus smoldering ~11 years pre-1918?

South

June, outbreaks in pigs following northward human spread

North-east

October, pigs infected at same time as humans

South

Hong Kong, June, human deaths

2009-H1N1 influenza A human cases virologically confirmed (publicly available data)b

Mainland

5,592

September 9

 

Hong Kong

15,357

September 9

1st case May 1

Taiwan

94

September 9

 

Macao

1,435

September 9

 

Porcine infection not known to this time.

aAdapted from Cadbury (1920), Chun (1919), and Shortridge (1983).

bCHP (2009).

TABLE A12-2 Deaths Due to Influenza in Hong Kong for Each Month from 1918-1928

Month 

Year

Monthly totals

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

1925

1926

1927

1928

January

0

21

39

20

13

5

2

3

2

0

7

112

February

0

16

118

19

13

6

1

3

3

0

9

188

March

0

25

75

20

13

4

2

2

0

1

8

150

April

0

41

38

22

18

5

10

3

2

1

6

146

May

1

75

32

27

13

7

5

4

4

0

7

175

June

108

137

61

26

44

13

5

4

4

3

8

413

July

53

77

22

54

40

14

9

11

4

4

12

300

August

10

30

14

30

30

5

4

3

6

7

11

150

September

1

8

30

28

40

11

5

6

3

3

27

162

October

70

8

44

13

64

7

5

0

4

3

10

228

November

95

9

35

27

76

2

2

5

1

4

10

266

December

67

2

34

17

58

4

2

1

0

3

6

194

Totals

405

449

542

303

422

83

52

45

33

29

121

2,484

NOTE: These figures may not be accurate for the whole population since influenza was not notifiable, and were derived from those provided by the same hospital and practitioners.

SOURCE: Shortridge (1983).



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