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FIGURE A14-1 Reconstruction of the sequence of reassortment events leading up to the emergence of S-OIV. Shaded boxes represent host species; avian (green), swine (red) and human (grey). Coloured lines represent interspecies-transmission pathways of influenza genes. The eight genomic segments are represented as parallel lines in descending order of size. Dates marked with dashed vertical lines on ‘elbows’ indicate the mean time of divergence of the S-OIV genes from corresponding virus lineages. Reassortment events not involved with the emergence of human disease are omitted. Fort Dix refers to the last major outbreak of S-OIV in humans. The first triple-reassortant swine viruses were detected in 1998, but to improve clarity the origin of this lineage is placed earlier.

FIGURE A14-1 Reconstruction of the sequence of reassortment events leading up to the emergence of S-OIV. Shaded boxes represent host species; avian (green), swine (red) and human (grey). Coloured lines represent interspecies-transmission pathways of influenza genes. The eight genomic segments are represented as parallel lines in descending order of size. Dates marked with dashed vertical lines on ‘elbows’ indicate the mean time of divergence of the S-OIV genes from corresponding virus lineages. Reassortment events not involved with the emergence of human disease are omitted. Fort Dix refers to the last major outbreak of S-OIV in humans. The first triple-reassortant swine viruses were detected in 1998, but to improve clarity the origin of this lineage is placed earlier.

press; Trifonov et al., 2009; Garten et al., in press and http://influenza.bio.ed.ac.uk; CDC, 2009a; Shortridge et al., 1977).

Given that S-OIV contains genes of Eurasian origin, we included in our phylogenetic analyses 15 newly sequenced swine influenza viruses from Hong Kong, sampled in the course of a surveillance program conducted since the early 1990s. The viruses were a mixture of seven H1N1 and eight H1N2 subtypes, and viruses belonging to the classical, Eurasian avian-like, and triple-reassortant swine lineages were all present. Both Eurasian and triple-reassortant strains were isolated in Hong Kong in 2009. Extensive reassortment among these three virus lineages was also observed from the Hong Kong surveillance data (Supplementary Table A14-3), with reassortment between Eurasian avian-like and triple-reassortant swine lineages occurring as early as 2003 (for example, Sw/HK/78/2003).



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