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related to pathogen diversity, the future life sciences landscape, and the nature of present and future biological threats. He was cochair of the Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of Their Application to Next Generation Biowarfare Threats for the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). He received the Squibb Award from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) in 2001, the Senior Scholar Award in Global Infectious Diseases from the Ellison Medical Foundation in 2002, an NIH Director’s Pioneer Award in 2006, and a Doris Duke Distinguished Clinical Scientist Award in 2006. He is also a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology.

James M. Hughes, M.D. (Vice Chair), is professor of medicine and public health at Emory University’s School of Medicine and Rollins School of Public Health, serving as director of the Emory Program in Global Infectious Diseases, associate director of the Southeastern Center for Emerging Biological Threats, and senior adviser to the Emory Center for Global Safe Water. He also serves as senior scientific adviser for infectious diseases to the International Association of National Public Health Institutes funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Prior to joining Emory in June 2005, Dr. Hughes served as director of the NCID at the CDC. Dr. Hughes received his B.A. and M.D. degrees from Stanford University and completed postgraduate training in internal medicine at the University of Washington, infectious diseases at the University of Virginia, and preventive medicine at the CDC. After joining the CDC as an EIS officer in 1973, Dr. Hughes worked initially on foodborne and waterborne diseases and subsequently on infection control in healthcare settings. He served as director of CDC’s Hospital Infections Program from 1983 to 1988, as deputy director of NCID from 1988 to 1992, and as director of NCID from 1992 to 2005. A major focus of Dr. Hughes’ career has been on building partnerships among the clinical, research, public health, and veterinary communities to prevent and respond to infectious diseases at the national and global levels. His research interests include emerging and reemerging infectious diseases; antimicrobial resistance; foodborne diseases; health care-associated infections; vector-borne and zoonotic diseases; rapid detection of and response to infectious diseases and bioterrorism; strengthening public health capacity at the local, national, and global levels; and prevention of water-related diseases in the developing world. Dr. Hughes is a fellow of the AAAS, the American College of Physicians, and the IDSA, a member of IOM, and a councillor of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Ruth L. Berkelman, M.D., is the Rollins Professor and director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness and Research at the Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, in Atlanta. She received her A.B. from Princeton Uni-

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