to public uses in making resource allocation decisions such as those involving spectrum. In this chapter the committee has sought to inform these decisions by highlighting the costs of the interference problem for the EESS and RAS.

Earth Exploration-Satellite Service (EESS)

The challenge to the EESS below about 10 GHz is from interference arising from high-speed electronics that incidentally radiate isotropically (e.g., electronic cameras and computers), and from short-range wireless services such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and cellular telephones. Interference above about 10 GHz arises from poorly filtered or directed communications, radar, and related services in bands in or near passive bands, or in bands with harmonics in passive bands (see Tables 2.1 and 2.2 and Figure 3.10). Equipment radiating above 10 GHz is mostly sold to large entities at prices well above consumer levels, and mitigating filters or other RFI suppression devices could readily be added to that equipment. One exception is automobile anticollision radar being developed for large-scale consumer sales for use in the 23 GHz band, despite that band’s current worldwide exclusive ITU and FCC passive allocation (see also the discussion in §§2.5, 3.5, and 4.1). A potential future problem could arise if standards for widely used consumer equipment do not preclude incidental emissions above 10 GHz, which generally can be avoided with minor design changes at little cost.

Radio Astronomy Service (RAS)

The RAS is currently dominated by relatively few large radio observatories located in remote areas that nonetheless are beset by increasing levels of incidental interference from proliferating consumer-level electronics such as cellular telephones, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth systems, computers, and so on; from emissions from aircraft and satellites; and from over-the-horizon signals arising hundreds of miles away, well outside most protected areas but reflected by aircraft, the troposphere, and other means. Explicit expenditures for RAS mitigation research and implementation are modest because mitigation for the next generation of radio telescopes will be achieved primarily by the indirect costs of locating the observatories in extremely remote locations that are therefore more expensive to develop and operate (e.g., the Western Australian desert or the Chilean Andes). RAS costs are thus arguably already strongly affected by such remote-site mitigation costs, so little mitigation budget is left. Nonetheless, using horizon sensors to detect RFI of terrestrial origin is being pursued.

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