Millimeter- and submillimeter-wave frequencies distributed from approximately 183 to 916 GHz are ideally suited for observing ice clouds.7 These high frequencies are necessary in order for scattering to be the dominant interaction mechanism. The wide range of frequencies accommodates the large dynamic range of ice water path that occurs in nature and is incorporated in the Submillimeter Infrared Radiometer Ice Cloud Experiment (SIRICE) mission that is currently in pre-Phase A development at NASA. See Table 2.4 in Chapter 2 of this report.


A.J. Gasiewski, “Numerical Sensitivity Analysis of Passive EHF and SMMW Channels to Tropospheric Water Vapor, Clouds, and Precipitation,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 30: 859-870 (1992); K.F. Evans and G.L. Stephens, “Microwave Radiative Transfer Through Clouds Composed of Realistically Shaped Ice Crystals. Part II: Remote Sensing of Ice Clouds,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 52: 2058-2072 (1995); K.F. Evans, S.J. Walter, A.J. Heymsfield, and M.N. Deeter, “Modeling of Submillimeter Passive Remote Sensing of Cirrus Clouds,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 37 (1998); K.F. Evans, A.H. Evans, I.G. Nolt, and B.T. Marshall, “The Prospect for Remote Sensing of Cirrus Clouds with a Submillimeter-wave Spectrometer,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, 38: 514-525 (1999).

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