resolution in time, space, and frequency for purposes of spectrum development and management, based on the spectral and spatial density of emitters.

The next generation of spectrum management policies must enable better sharing of the spectrum as well as diminishing the impact that users have on the RF spectrum. This can be done by exploiting currently available technologies and hastening the development of nascent technologies. New policies should encourage the following:

  • The development of the means for direct interaction between active and passive spectrum users to protect current and future scientific uses of the spectrum. The nation needs to provide the policies that will make the spectrum more useful and productive for all users.

Recommendation: The EESS and RAS communities should be provided additional support through NSF, NASA, and NOAA to increase their participation in spectrum management forums within the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), FCC, NTIA, and other organizations. The goal of such participation is to foster outreach, advance the understanding of interference and regulation issues, and initiate mutual cooperation for interference mitigation.

  • The development and implementation of technology to address RFI for current and future satellite systems to ensure that the national investment in scientific uses of the spectrum is preserved.

Recommendation: Investment in the development of mitigation technology should be increased so that it is commensurate with the costs of data denial that result from the use of systems without mitigation. To this end, NSF and NASA should support research and development for unilateral1 RFI mitigation technology in both EESS and RAS systems. NASA, NOAA, and the Department of Defense should require that appropriate RFI analyses and tests and practical RFI mitigation techniques be applied to all future satellite systems carrying passive microwave sensors.

  • A regulatory environment that enables sharing the spectrum in both space and time. This is a “win-win” scenario that will enable additional scientific uses without impacting commercial development.

Recommendation: The NSF, NASA, and NTIA should jointly support research and development for cooperative RFI mitigation techniques and the associated forums


As discussed in Chapter 4.

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