ECOSYSTEM CONCEPTS FOR SUSTAINABLE BIVALVE MARICULTURE

Committee on Best Practices for Shellfish Mariculture and the Effects of Commercial Activities in Drakes Estero, Pt. Reyes National Seashore, California

Ocean Studies Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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ECOSYSTEM CONCEPTS FOR SUSTAINABLE BIVALVE MARICULTURE Committee on Best Practices for Shellfish Mariculture and the Effects of Commercial Activities in Drakes Estero, Pt. Reyes National Seashore, California Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. C8074080026 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Park Service. Any opinions, find - ings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-14695-1 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-14695-X Front Cover: Image of the Northern quahog, Mercenaria mercenaria, was provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Back Cover: Images from top right, counterclockwise: longlines in Samish Bay, Washington; Herrold Oyster Company workers picking oysters in Willapa Bay, Washington; Kumamoto oysters; eelgrass and longlines in Willapa Bay, Washington (all of these were used with permission from Bill Dewey, Taylor Shellfish Company); and mussel lines (used with permission from Fisheries and Oceans Canada). Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern - ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its mem - bers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advis - ing the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in pro - viding services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON BEST PRACTICES FOR SHELLFISH MARICuLTuRE AND THE EFFECTS OF COMMERCIAL ACTIvITIES IN DRAkES ESTERO, PT. REyES NATIONAL SEASHORE, CALIFORNIA CHARLES (PETE) H. PETERSON, Chair, University of North Carolina, Morehead City BARRy A. COSTA-PIERCE, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett BRETT R. DuMBAuLD, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Newport, Oregon CAROLyN FRIEDMAN, University of Washington, Seattle EILEEN E. HOFMANN, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia HAukE kITE-POWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts DONAL T. MANAHAN, University of Southern California, Los Angeles FRANCIS O’BEIRN, Marine Institute, Galway, Ireland ROBERT T. PAINE, University of Washington, Seattle PAuL THOMPSON, University of Aberdeen, Scotland ROBERT WHITLATCH, University of Connecticut, Groton Staff JODI BOSTROM, Associate Program Officer SuSAN ROBERTS, Board Director JEREMy JuSTICE, Senior Program Assistant v

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OCEAN STuDIES BOARD DONALD F. BOESCH, Chair, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge EDWARD A. BOyLE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JORGE E. CORREDOR, University of Puerto Rico, Mayag�ez kEITH R. CRIDDLE, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Juneau JODy W. DEMING, University of Washington, Seattle MARy (MISSy) H. FEELEy, ExxonMobil Exploration Company, Houston, Texas ROBERT HALLBERG, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Princeton University, New Jersey DEBRA HERNANDEZ, Hernandez and Company, Isle of Palms, South Carolina ROBERT A. HOLMAN, Oregon State University, Corvallis kIHO kIM, American University, Washington, DC BARBARA A. kNuTH, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York ROBERT A. LAWSON, Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, California GEORGE I. MATSuMOTO, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, California JAy S. PEARLMAN, The Boeing Company (retired), Port Angeles, Washington ANDREW A. ROSENBERG, Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia DANIEL L. RuDNICk, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California ROBERT J. SERAFIN, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado ANNE M. TREHu, Oregon State University, Corvallis PETER L. TyACk, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts DAWN J. WRIGHT, Oregon State University, Corvallis JAMES A. yODER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts OSB Staff SuSAN ROBERTS, Director CLAuDIA MENGELT, Senior Program Officer DEBORAH GLICkSON, Program Officer JODI BOSTROM, Associate Program Officer SHuBHA BANSkOTA, Financial Associate PAMELA LEWIS, Administrative Coordinator HEATHER CHIARELLO, Senior Program Assistant JEREMy JuSTICE, Senior Program Assistant vi

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Acknowledgments This report was greatly enhanced by the participants of the meeting held as part of this study. The committee would like to acknowledge the efforts of those who gave presentations at the meeting: Kevin Amos (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Michael Beck (The Nature Conservancy), John Bonardelli (independent consultant, Norway), Ryan Carnegie (Virginia Institute of Marine Science), William Dewey (Taylor Shellfish Farms), João G. Ferreira (New University of Lisbon, Portugal), Rebecca Goldburg (Pew Charitable Trusts), and Robert Rheault (Moonstone Oysters). These talks helped set the stage for fruitful discus - sions in the closed sessions that followed. The committee would like to thank Dennis Hedgecock (University of Southern California) for his con - tribution on bivalve genetics, which is included in Chapter 3. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with pro- cedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS MALCOLM BEVERIDGE, WorldFish Center, Cairo, Egypt IAN DAVIES, Fisheries Research Services Marine Laboratory, Aberdeen, United Kingdom JOÃO G. FERREIRA, New University of Lisbon, Portugal SUSAN FORD, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey REBECCA GOLDBURG, Pew Charitable Trusts, Monclair, New Jersey JON GRANT, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada RICHARD KARNEY, MV Shellfish Group, Vineyard Haven, Massachusetts DOUGLAS LIPTON, University of Maryland, College Park CHRISTOPHER McKINDSEY, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli, Quebec ANDREW A. ROSENBERG, Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia Although the reviewers listed above have provided many con- structive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Judith E. McDowell, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, appointed by the Divison on Earth and Life Studies, and Michael C. Kavanaugh, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., appointed by the Report Review Committee, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring com- mittee and the institution.

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Contents Summary 1 1 Introduction 17 Framing the Issue, 17 Community Structure and Food Webs, 19 Key Concepts, 24 Species Considered in This Report, 25 General Approaches to Defining Carrying Capacity, 25 Report Organization, 27 2 Best Management Practices and Performance Standards 29 Established Practices and Standards for Mollusc Farming, 31 Useful Characteristics of Best Management Practices and Standards, 35 Findings and Recommendations, 37 3 Ecological Effects of Bivalve Mariculture 39 Biological Effects of Molluscs: Biogeochemical Cycling and Habitat Provision, 40 Impacts of Mariculture Operations on Ecosystems, 45 Predator, Competitor, and Pest Control Management, 62 Uncertainties, Unknowns, and Recommended Research, 67 ix

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x CONTENTS 4 Bivalve Mariculture Contrasted with Wild Fisheries 73 Comparison of Ecological Effects of Bivalve Mariculture and Wild-Stock Harvest, 73 Effect of Mariculture on Wild Population Fishing Pressure, 81 Findings and Recommendations, 86 5 Carrying Capacity and Bivalve Mariculture 87 What is Carrying Capacity?, 88 Carrying-Capacity Models, 92 Marine Spatial Planning: Locating New or Expanding Present Mariculture Operations, 100 Conclusions, 103 Findings and Recommendations, 105 6 Economic and Policy Factors Affecting Bivalve Mariculture 107 Regulation and Permitting, 108 Markets, Prices, and Trade, 113 Local Traditions and Not-in-My-Backyard (NIMBY) Issues, 121 Findings and Recommendations, 122 7 Ecosystem Services of Bivalves: Implications for Restoration 123 Overview of Ecosystem Services Provided by Bivalve Molluscs, 123 Bivalve Ecosystem Services, 125 Use of Molluscs to Promote Estuarine Restoration, 128 A Role for Molluscan Mariculture in Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Restoration, 130 Findings and Recommendations, 131 References 133 Appendixes A Statement of Task 173 B Committee and Staff Biographies 175