Urban Development, and senior staff economist at the Council of Economic Advisors. He received the Jesse Burkhead Award for the best article published in Public Budgeting and Finance. He is a past president of the National Economists Club, and he served on the board of directors of the National Association for Business Economics. He has a Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University.

Joseph Antos is the Wilson H. Taylor scholar in health care and retirement policy at the American Enterprise Institute. He is also a commissioner of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission and an adjunct professor at the School of Public Health of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Previously, he was Assistant Director for Health and Human Resources at the Congressional Budget Office. His research focuses on the economics of health policy, including Medicare reform, health insurance regulation, and the uninsured. He has written and spoken extensively on the Medicare drug benefit and has led a team of experienced independent actuaries and cost estimators in a study to evaluate various proposals to extend health coverage to the uninsured. He has an M.A. and a Ph.D. from the University of Rochester.

Kenneth S. Apfel is a professor at the School of Public Policy of the University of Maryland. Previously, he held many senior government positions, including the Commissioner of the Social Security Administration, Associate Director for Human Resources for the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, and Assistant Secretary for Management and Budget at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. He also worked as legislative director to Senator Bill Bradley and served as committee staff for the Budget Committee of the U.S. Senate. He is a fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration and the National Academy of Social Insurance. He has a B.A. from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, an M.Ed. from Northeastern University, and an M.P.A. from the LBJ School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin.

Richard C. Atkinson is president emeritus of the University of California and professor emeritus of cognitive science and psychology at the University of California at San Diego. Prior to assuming the presidency of the University of California system, he was chancellor of University of California at San Diego. He is a former director of the National Science Foundation, past president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and was a long-term member of the faculty at Stanford University. His research has been concerned with problems of memory and cognition. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medi-

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