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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was supported by the Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46378, the National Science Foundation under Award No. CHE-0554275, the Department of Health and Human Services under Award No. N01-OD-4-2139, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund under Award No. 1007560, and the Research Corporation for Science Advancement under Award No. 7827. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-14751-4

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-14751-4

Library of Congress Control Number: 2010921434

Cover: Work at the intersection of the life sciences and the physical sciences has often been depicted in new ways of imaging or modeling biological specimens, some of which are illustrated on the cover: (1) three-dimensional distribution of membrane proteins within a cell revealed through iPALM imaging (courtesy of Harald F. Hess, Howard Hughes Medical Institute); (2) xylose isomerase crystal (courtesy of Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Research (BER)-funded neutron Protein Crystallography Station at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)); (3) simulation of confinement of DNA in viral capsid (courtesy of Molecular Dynamics and Statistical Mechanics Research Group, University of Wisconsin at Madison); (4) diffusion tension imaging of the human brain (courtesy of Thomas Schultz, University of Chicago); (5) chromosome pairs; (6) modeled structure for the enzyme D-xylose isomerase (courtesy of Department of Energy BER-funded neutron Protein Crystallography Station at LANL; (7) anglerfish ovary obtained using autofluorescence (courtesy of James E. Hayden, Wistar Institute, Philadelphia); and (8) rat cerebellum obtained using two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy (courtesy of the National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research at the University of California at San Diego and the National Institutes of Health.

IMAGE SOURCES: (1) Harald F. Hess, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; (2) Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Research (BER)-funded neutron Protein Crystallography Station at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); (3) Molecular Dynamics and Statistical Mechanics Research Group, University of Wisconsin at Madison; (4) Thomas Schultz, University of Chicago; (6) Department of Energy BER-funded neutron Protein Crystallography Station at LANL; (7) James E. Hayden, Wistar Institute, Philadelphia; and (8) National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research at the University of California at San Diego and the National Institutes of Health.

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National Academies Press,

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and the Board on Physics and Astronomy, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001; Internet <http://www.national-academies.org/bpa>.

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