2008; Hershenson and Berger, 2001; Remley and Herlihy, 2010; Sweeney, 2001). That information is summarized here.

In the 1950s, the psychology profession was establishing the doctoral level as the requirement for professional status, and counseling psychology was developing as a specialty within psychology. Historical events were leading to the rapid development of school counseling programs and vocational-rehabilitation counseling. Eventually, changes in counseling psychology, the school-counseling movement, and federal funding of vocational-rehabilitation counseling led to the emergence of the new profession of counseling.

At the beginning of its effort to become a profession, psychology recognized people who had master’s degrees as professional psychologists. The American Psychological Association (APA) declared in the 1950s that in the future only psychologists who held doctoral degrees would be recognized as professionals. The profession decided to continue to recognize all current psychologists who held master’s degrees and allow them to practice but in the future to allow into the profession only those who held doctoral degrees in psychology. Licensure laws in psychology throughout the United States were changed to reflect the new position.

In 1957, when the Soviet Union successfully orbited the first spacecraft, Sputnik, politicians in the United States feared that, inasmuch as the Soviet Union had exceeded American technology and beaten the United States in the “race to space,” it might overpower the United States politically as well. In response to that fear, Congress created substantial programs to encourage young people to seek careers in technical and scientific fields. The effort included placing counselors in high schools to channel students into mathematics and science courses. Throughout the United States, universities created summer institutes in which high-school teachers were given basic courses that led to their placement in high schools as guidance counselors. In most instances, high-school teachers were given two or three courses in guidance or counseling, which allowed them to be certified as school counselors and to assume guidance-counselor positions in schools. Because the primary purpose of the effort was to encourage students to take mathematics and science courses, it did not seem necessary for counselors to be prepared beyond the training provided in the summer institutes.

School-accreditation groups were soon requiring high schools to have guidance counselors if they were to receive or continue their accred-

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