the importance of translating research into effective individual- and population-level interventions.

To support these efforts to better mobilize and align resources to meet the pressing burden of CVD and related chronic diseases, the level of investment required for this critical priority in global health needs to be defined more clearly. There is a need for high-quality analyses of the gap between current resources and intervention efforts and future needs and intervention opportunities. This will help inform the best balance of intervention approaches for future investments and resource allocation, including health promotion, prevention, treatment, and disease management. Conducting such analysis at the country level in low and middle income countries will be an important planning tool for national and subnational governments as well as for funders and development agencies.

Recommendation 11: Define Resource Needs

The Global Alliance for Chronic Disease should commission and coordinate case studies of the CVD financing needs for five to seven countries representing different geographical regions, stages of the CVD epidemic, and stages of development. These studies should require a comprehensive assessment of the future financial and other resource needs within the health, public health, and agricultural systems to prevent and reduce the burden of CVD and related chronic diseases. Several scenarios for different prevention and treatment efforts, training and capacity building efforts, technology choices, and demographic trends should be evaluated. These assessments should explicitly establish the gap between current investments and future investment needs, focusing on how to maximize population health gains. These initial case studies should establish an analytical framework with the goal of expanding beyond the initial pilot countries.

Global Reporting and Dialog

Progress on CVD requires that many players better coordinate their efforts, define clear goals, communicate shared messages through multiple channels from the community to the global level, and take decisive action together on the areas identified in this report. Although regional, national, and subnational actions will be the foundation for successful implementation of efforts to reduce the burden of CVD, global coordination is also critical. To accomplish this, a consistent reporting mechanism at the global level is needed to track progress, to stimulate ongoing dialog about strategies and priorities, and to continue to galvanize stakeholders at all levels.

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