3
Games: Beyond Entertainment

INTRODUCTION

Digital games have a larger societal role than simply as pieces of stand-alone software entertainment. Like television in the 1950s and 1960s, games are part of mainstream culture and help describe and define “tribal” relationships within that culture.1 Whether committed or casual gamers, players of all stripes find themselves shaped by the games they play and the ways they play them. Games hold the potential to broadly impact society as a learning tool, a social mechanism, a cultural translator (facilitating communication between individuals of different cultural backgrounds when a common language or cultural context is lacking), a productivity tool, and even a means to communicate messages and encourage change. Emerging developments such as integrating real-world information into game media demonstrate how games may revolutionize means for communication and analysis in areas as varied as social interaction and national security.

As mentioned in Chapters 1 and 2, there has been recent dramatic progress in high-performance computing (HPC) with clear relevance to modeling and simulation. While petascale and exascale architectures are unlikely to affect games directly, further advances in multicore and memory speeds are certain to affect future development cycles of the games industry.

As the intelligence community and others think about positioning themselves to utilize and understand games, they must first understand the range of game types and experiences and also the varied and complex ways in which players interact with games. Beyond recognizing this range of available game-play “tools,” described in depth in Appendix E, communities need to understand and take advantage of the wide variety of game platforms and potential applications beyond the entertainment world.

1

For example, modern tribal relationships can be seen in players of games such as World of Warcraft, similar to television tribal relationships of the past such as those among Star Trek Trekkies.



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3 Games: Beyond Entertainment INTRODuCTION Digital games have a larger societal role than simply as pieces of stand-alone software entertain- ment. Like television in the 1950s and 1960s, games are part of mainstream culture and help describe and define “tribal” relationships within that culture.1 Whether committed or casual gamers, players of all stripes find themselves shaped by the games they play and the ways they play them. Games hold the potential to broadly impact society as a learning tool, a social mechanism, a cultural translator (facili- tating communication between individuals of different cultural backgrounds when a common language or cultural context is lacking), a productivity tool, and even a means to communicate messages and encourage change. Emerging developments such as integrating real-world information into game media demonstrate how games may revolutionize means for communication and analysis in areas as varied as social interaction and national security. As mentioned in Chapters 1 and 2, there has been recent dramatic progress in high-performance computing (HPC) with clear relevance to modeling and simulation. While petascale and exascale archi- tectures are unlikely to affect games directly, further advances in multicore and memory speeds are certain to affect future development cycles of the games industry. As the intelligence community and others think about positioning themselves to utilize and under- stand games, they must first understand the range of game types and experiences and also the varied and complex ways in which players interact with games. Beyond recognizing this range of available game- play “tools,” described in depth in Appendix E, communities need to understand and take advantage of the wide variety of game platforms and potential applications beyond the entertainment world. 1For example, modern tribal relationships can be seen in players of games such as World of Warcraft, similar to television tribal relationships of the past such as those among Star Trek Trekkies. 0

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 GAMES: BEYOND ENTERTAINMENT gAMES AND CuLTuRE Interactive and Participatory Culture Games are heralded for being interactive media, even more so as video games have become more sophisticated not only in the area of technology—for example, artificial intelligence, physics, and graph- ics—but also in the area of game design. Digital games have evolved as exemplars of participatory culture where users not only play the games but also often contribute to further iterative developments. This participatory game culture yields a variety of added resources, in the form of new content in the game for others to play (e.g., new levels, new objects, new characters, environments) and outside materials that support the play of the game (e.g., walkthroughs and value databases). It is important to recognize that in some ways games provide an innovative dimension of “co-cre- ation” between the audience (gamer) and the storyteller (game designer). Beyond download sites where users can actively upload, download, and browse each other’s content, propagation and dissemination of community-generated content has been automated in games like Electronic Arts’ Spore, in which each end-user’s single-player game world can be autopopulated with creatures that other players have created in their own games. In this fashion the game developer is able to increase the number and diversity of in-game assets at little or no marginal cost (because it is the players, not the game company’s artists and animators, who create the assets). This trend is likely to become increasingly significant for the broad base of game development, in both entertainment and serious games, as the technologies and tools con- tinue to evolve and more powerful computational platforms become available at lower cost. It is worth noting that such innovations in game design are not dependent on either HPC or, indeed, any increase in core computing power. They are innovations in the social dimension of games that leverage existing, non-cutting-edge capacities of the Internet, and the commodification of storage and bandwidth. As game platform life cycles become longer and gaming moves increasingly online, the trajectory of the industry is no longer a technological arms race, as it was in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s. Some of the most compelling and engaging experiences are and will continue to be delivered on relatively low-cost machines (e.g., the Nintendo Wii), making their influence widely accessible. Social Interaction Through games For many years the popular perception of digital games has been that they are solitary experiences enjoyed by those who shun social interaction, such as introverted teenage males, in so-called real life (a term common in the domain of virtual reality). These are mistaken assumptions, as digital games have evolved to be highly social environments that appeal to a much broader demographic. Because of both their persistent nature and sheer scale, massively multiplayer online games (MMO games, or MMOGs) support a level of social complexity and social interaction that is surprisingly rich and diverse.2 One product of this is the presence of groups that self-organize both for the sake of socialization and for game play, collaboration, and competition. In most cases, MMOGs support these groups (which are commonly referred to as “guilds” for MMOGs or “clans” for smaller-sized com- petitive online shooters) with in-game features (such as guild management and guild chat) designed specifically to facilitate the organizational behavior. The most dedicated guilds often have a complex social structure with leaders (who determine policy and planning), officers (who implement policy), and regular members. Further, the work of scholars such as Williams (2006; Williams et al., 2008) and yee 2See Appendix E for a more complete description and discussion of genres of MMOGs, such as MMO role-playing games like World of Warcraft and MMO simulation games like Second Life.

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 THE RISE OF GAMES AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR MODELING AND SIMULATION (2006, 2009) suggests that the bonds formed between players in an MMOG—individuals who rarely, if ever, meet each other face to face—are held in as high a regard as and are as lasting as bonds formed between friends in real life. Likewise, the structure of complex guilds often collapses due to the same pressures that cause traditional social groups to collapse (Ducheneaut et al., 2007). Once gamers identify the categories of games in which they are most comfortable, they begin to learn the value system and allowable attitudes of their particular game genre’s culture. Norms and values are strictly enforced within the guilds and often vary from guild to guild. While there is certainly room for cheating and other aberrant behavior in all games, there is usually a built-in and externally applied retribution. While MMOGs are often cited as examples of complex social interaction in video games, the social interaction associated with single-player games should not be dismissed. Many online game services that act as a platform for the digital distribution of single-player games (the most notable being the Valve’s Steam game service) feature robust social networking tools that allow players to build friend lists, chat with other players, and rate games. These tools create communities of social interaction around the single-player game experience. Game-based online connections for both single-player and MMO games have outlets to become offline connections, as demonstrated in some cases by the prevalence of conventions. Such events as PAX, GenCon, BlizzCon, and Comic-Con International act as venues for both the construction of fan- based video game culture and the social interaction of players themselves. The participatory culture of games has grown as games have evolved to be both multiplayer and performance experiences. In multi- player games, gamers socialize in groups online for both collaborative and confrontational experiences. Research has shown that, while many online gamers will play with seemingly random players, a large portion actually play with people who are in close geographic proximity with each other 3 and, in the case of many, with people they know from real-life interactions (Williams et al., 2008). Many people derive stature within both game communities and other social communities by virtue of praise gained from interest in their game-related contributions (Chen, 2009). Player Engagement The existence of games that benefit from the play of other humans is in itself a form of participatory culture. In many cases, the player’s role is not simply presence but something specific such as group leader, socializer, or other player who provides some level of performance in a game that creates its own level of entertainment or organization (Tychsen and Hitchens, 2009); further discussion of player roles can be found in Appendix E. Performance experiences are relatively new in gaming but are becoming a major contributor to the socialization and participatory culture of games. Performance games are those titles where being seen as “good” at the game includes not only how well you play but also how superlative your performance is while playing. A good nongame analogy might be the judgment of presentation for a gourmet chef in addition to the pure taste of the dish. Performance games are often gestural in nature (e.g., Guitar Hero, Rock Band, Wii Tennis, DanceDanceReolution) where the real-world movements of the player become part of the game itself. While the games require real-world performance to play, the actual level of performance required for game success is a subset of what players often contribute. In essence, play- ers “overperform” to the game’s minimum requirements for proper input, but in overperforming they 3The committee notes that some of this regional localization is forced by server protocols and balancing and latency of chip multiprocessors.

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 GAMES: BEYOND ENTERTAINMENT gain socially in the eyes of their peers. The value of performance game play cannot be judged outside a socialized setting, as those values are granted outside the game by fellow players, further reinforcing the social experience of these games. Online Community Contributions Many games are affiliated with planned online communities. Online communities serve to provide additional intellectual property value to the game as a place where game fans can both purchase game- related gear and find game updates and post requests for game fixes and extensions. These extension suggestions to games are often quite valuable to companies. On the America’s Army game, there were some 200,000 subscribers to the online forums in its first year, many of whom sent in desired game fixes and new level suggestions (Carter, 2002). Sometimes companies even provide mod (modification) tools so that fans can produce additional levels for their favorite game. These mods produce strong relationships between the game developers and the player community, the fans essentially having “skin in the game” with the developers, as the developers benefit from the creativity (and cheap labor) of the players from expert to novice. Additionally, such modding capabilities may hold unrealized potential for nongaming communities. Transmedia and Popular Culture4 Games are a largely user-controlled combination of software development (i.e., procedural algo- rithms that include modeling and simulation) and media (e.g., writing, film, art, music, storytelling). While this may be true of other sectors (such as simulations and some multimedia), games are often far more advanced in their usage of both software and media to produce an engaging experience. Games’ status as a bridge to other media (e.g., film, music, comic books) allows interactive media to draw on these other forms, aesthetically and culturally, in an interactive environment driven by increasingly sophisticated technology from graphics processors to artificial intelligence. Gamers move across multiple media forms as part of their utility of play. Players of Pokemon will play the offline paper card game, read user-created Pokemon how-to guides, or watch the Pokemon cartoon all in an effort to obtain information they can use to improve their performance in the game itself. World of Warcraft players will routinely turn to a variety of out-of-game media, including map books, walkthroughs, object databases, message boards, and more, in an effort to improve their game knowledge and thus perform better. In many of today’s popular entertainment franchises (especially speculative fiction and fantasy), stories and characters unfold across multiple media channels and products. As Jenkins (2008) notes, the strength of transmedia storytelling lies in the fact that multiple texts are integrated into an overall nar- rative so large that it cannot be contained within a single medium. In its ideal form a transmedia story speaks to the strengths of each individual media platform. A story might be introduced in a film and expanded through television, novels, and comics, and then its world might be explored and experienced through digital game play. Each franchise entry needs to be self-contained enough to enable autonomous consumption. That is, you do not need to have seen the film to enjoy the game and vice versa. However, 4Transmedia is a phenomenon that has existed for many years. Japan was one of the first countries where toy companies, comic book publishers, video game manufacturers, and media companies created formal partnerships and property holding companies for new products. Some examples include Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Pokemon, Bakugan, and Mighty Morphin Power Rangers. In the United States, media companies such as 42 Entertainment have emerged as specialists in transmedia entertainment and marketing.

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 THE RISE OF GAMES AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR MODELING AND SIMULATION there also needs to be a strong narrative connection between the separate manifestations of the story in the separate media platforms. Whether they start as a video game and migrate to other media (e.g., the films Final Fantasy, Tomb Raider, Silent Hill) or start as noninteractive media properties that are made into games (e.g., Harry Potter, Batman, SpongBob SquarePants), popular characters and fantasy worlds bridge multiple media and must be understood as a cross-media phenomenon. Ultimately, the best kind of transmedia storytelling is not about telling the same story over and over again but about telling different parts of the same story in different media in order to create a meta-story that transcends any one specific delivery platform. Perhaps the best example of this from digital games is Enter the Matrix. Developed by Shiny Entertainment and published in 2003, Enter the Matrix complemented the North American theatrical releases of Matrix Reloaded, the final movie in the Matrix trilogy. What is important about Enter the Matrix was that it was never intended to be a simple game adaptation of the film, allowing players to experience the same story and the same action that took place in the movie. Instead, it was intended to be part of a larger story ecosystem that included not only the films but also several short anime movies released on DVD. Each piece in this story ecosystem fits together in order to create a much larger story experience. The game itself allowed players to play characters and events that were only briefly mentioned in the films but played an important role in the holistic understanding of the ongoing meta-story. In fact, this transmedia phenomenon has reached such a level that many creative storytellers such as Peter Jackson (director of Lord of the Rings and King Kong) are beginning to think about multiple media channels not so much as an opportunity to repeatedly tell the same story or one large story but instead as an opportunity to create holistic storytelling realities in which many different stories can be told. In the most successful cases, what wraps each of the stories in a transmedia franchise together is a story- telling reality that is specifically designed (and evolved) with continuity and canon in mind. The reality connects the stories and creates a layered storytelling matrix of interlocking events, people, economy, philosophy, technology, and culture that is not only fed by the stories but in turn feeds the stories, mak- ing them part of a living world. While fictional realities such as J. R. R. Tolkien’s Middle Earth fantasy, Frank Herbert’s Dune reality, and H. P. Lovecraft’s Cthulhu mythos were once rare exceptions, many creative storytellers are imagining and building worlds that serve as expansive storytelling sandboxes. In short, games are a mainstream element of mass market popular culture. The realization of these transmedia connections as a business trend is described further in the section “Games and Transmedia as Marketing” later in this chapter. Political and Other Simulation games The cultural role of games is not limited to socialization and cross-media realizations; they can also work to simulate human networks and even yield persuasive power on the game player. A government or political simulation is a game that attempts to simulate the government and politics of all or part of a nation.5 The related genre of “god games” combines the systematic thinking of real-time strategy games with an underlying simulation of real-world tasks. In these games the player takes a god-like perspective and possesses supernatural powers to intervene (constructively or destructively) in the development of an interconnected ecosystem or narrative environment whose characters are invariably small and (compared to the player) powerless creatures with limited finite state machine autonomy. Examples include Will Wright’s Spore and The Sims and Peter Molyneux’s Populous and Black and White. Slightly distinct from the god games genre are simulation (or “sim”) games, including SimCity and 5Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_simulation_game. Last accessed June 29, 2009.

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 GAMES: BEYOND ENTERTAINMENT its sequel titles SimEarth and SimAnt, and business or political simulations like Railroad Tycoon and Balance of Power. In simulation games, as in god games, the player assumes a supervisory role over a virtual world that incorporates models of real-world complex phenomena (e.g., urban planning, biologi- cal and geological systems, economies, or geopolitical conflicts). Simulation has more leeway in terms of adherence to subject matter in the games world than in traditional modeling and simulation fields. To some extent, use of the terms “simulator” and “simulation” is often associated with those games with higher levels of task verisimilitude, while the prefix “sim-” is often used in games that tend to be more abstract ideas of simulation. In some cases, the underlying models of simulation games incorporate assumptions that may be intentionally or unintentionally persuasive to the player. For instance, in SimCity it is impossible to create a thriving city above a certain size unless one incorporates and fosters public transportation into the urban infrastructure. This, in effect, makes a politically fraught argument for the benefits of public transportation. A simulation game based on models of, say, the federal budget or the effects of lifestyle and preventative care on one’s physical health, such as BudgetHero (2008) or SimHealth (1994), would inevitably reflect the assumptions and biases of whoever designed the game. By playing to win the game, a player would at least temporarily buy into the designer’s assumptions and role play based on those assumptions. Such examples demonstrate the persuasive potential of the genre. For certain military and vehicle simulation games, such as Flanker, Falcon, Gran Turismo, and Forza, a premium is placed on hyperrealism rather than driving a particular viewpoint. OuTPuTS AND EFFECTS OF gAME PLAy Context of game Play Recent attention in the games research community has been paid to situational context: the idea that games as media and as software are exceedingly adaptable and plastic. Given this flexibility, games take on very different properties depending on the context in which they are used and applied, from chang- ing surroundings to play motivation to audience. Game play experience changes dramatically when a game is played in a mobile setting on a bus versus on a big screen at home driven by a powerful game console; with direction in a classroom compared to an educational game played alone without a mentor available; or for the chemistry training of highly motivated individuals compared to that of unmotivated high school students. Such situational context potential is often missed by those examining games for the first time. As the uses of games multiply, recognition of the context of a given game is essential. This includes understand- ing the reaction and positioning of a game across different cultural contexts. For example, in the United States, the action game America’s Army is generally considered a realistic, doctrine-based look at the life of infantry in the U.S. Army and despite recruitment purposes is viewed in a mostly positive light as a “simulation” game (kennedy, 2002). In some cultures, however, it is simply considered propaganda, and in others it is seen as a direct assault on their beliefs (Game Politics, 2007). This phenomenon is not confined to America’s Army. Many Western-developed first-person shooters are positioned as West- ern (primarily U.S.) forces in a struggle against terrorists, often of Middle Eastern or Islamic descent. The combination of common Western themes in commercial games and the rapid uptake of games for military and security training in the West is beginning to elicit specific responses from organizations in other parts of the world seeking to push back or compete with such activity (Axe, 2008). Situational play context can be defined beyond game-play context and cultural interpretations. Games are dependent on their enabling playback devices and distribution and marketing support. As such systems become more ubiquitous, video games will exist in many different situational contexts and

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 THE RISE OF GAMES AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR MODELING AND SIMULATION locations. How these surrounding aspects can create change and enhance or depress potential impact, of either a particular game or games in general, is a critical issue that needs more examination, understand- ing, and development. As social networking platforms expand in their reach and other user-contributing “Web 2.0” systems grow up alongside games, the combination of games with these systems that create new situational constructs needs to be examined interdependently. Further examination of individual games in isolation cannot provide the full story of their impact; however, further exploration into the ways in which games take advantage of new mobile platforms, such as the iPhone, which combines media, computing and graphics power, kinetics, geolocation, networking, voice, and video, would potentially be rewarding. understanding the Effects of game Play For those who research, play, and advocate about the potential of video games, games are understood to generate outputs beyond the eradication of lazy Sunday afternoons. There is evidence from the exist- ing research base so far to say that games produce outputs other than entertainment, such as improved hand-eye coordination and memory (Haier et al., 2009; Mayo, 2007). Researchers continue to seek to quantify these effects by answering questions like: • How much impact do games have in various areas of effect? • What are the best development methodologies for instigating various outputs? • What are the potential comparative advantages of gaming versus other approaches for effect? How can return on investment be compared between these approaches? While some may consider game playing to be simply frivolous, research counters this view. As studies begin to unlock the effect games can have on individuals and groups of players as well as the means by which to instigate such outputs, the question becomes less “Do games create outputs beyond fun?” and more “How can we harness these outputs to the highest level of desired effect?” for whichever sponsor seeks such results. Certainly such motivations have driven the advertising industry, for example, to increase in-game ad placement for their products. As game players and the population at large better understand what games offer in terms of byproduct from play, games will begin to shape a new set of products aimed at those changes people may seek. This is already happening in the health and wellness segment where Wii Fit—a game ostensibly for exercise—has sold close to 20 million units worldwide (Mazel, 2009), making it arguably equivalent to one of the largest “new drug” launches in the health space. PopCap games, a maker of small-sized casual games, explains that a large number of its players self-report using their games to relieve stress, improve memory, and avoid cravings for food or nicotine (Ng, 2009). This suggests the commercial market may impact the techniques developers hone to author games generating extra-entertainment outputs. A possible classification for the types of nonentertainment outputs and effects from games might break down as follows: • Learning and skills, • Biological and physiological health, • Psychological and behavioral health, • Communication and organizational behavior, • Productivity, and • Advocacy and propaganda.

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 GAMES: BEYOND ENTERTAINMENT Learning and Skills Currently the largest amount of work goes into the learning and skills area as it relates to the creation of games to support knowledge acquisition, the acquisition and practice of new skills, and literacy and understanding (Griffiths, 2002; yates, 2008). For many the quest to understand alternative uses of games is about seeking new tools for knowl- edge and skill acquisition (Durlach et al., 2000; Goerger et al., 1998; Okagaki and Frensch, 1994). Many sponsors of games aim to provide specific populations with the ability to acquire and hone skills through game play. Advocates of games, when asked to highlight the types of skills and talents players can gain through game play, often highlight general life skills such as creativity, planning, strategy, and collaboration. However, these skills are inherently difficult to assess. The lack of acceptable testing for creativity, for example, makes it difficult to scientifically verify whether these skills are further developed in people by games than they would be otherwise. At the same time, for skills where reliable evaluation metrics exist, the exact impact of games and simulation is still an open question. For example, mathematical skills—that is, skill in manipulating mathematical expressions in contrast to skills associated with new mathematical insights—may rise through playing a math game, but the significance of these gains may be debatable, especially when compared to other learning methodologies. In such specific targets the issue of underlying motivation arises. For many learners, game playing is a pleasurable way to study. Motivation is a critical compo- nent of learning, but it is not enough. In fact, some math games developed so far have at times been demotivating due primarily to poor design and software development and insufficient budgets (Elliott et al., 2002; Rice, 2007). Biological and Physiological Health In the health sector, research shows how game play can be responsible for direct changes to human biology and physiology. Games have been shown to potentially increase visual processing skills, 6 spatial awareness (Subrahmanyam and Greenfield, 1996; Feng et al., 2007), balance (Brumels et al., 2008), endothelial function (Murphy et al., 2009), and—through “exergaming”—aerobic utilization and weight Murphy ), loss (Murphy et al., 2006). Games have also been developed to allow patients to visualize attacking cancer cells.7 Psychological and Behavioral Health Games have been used to combat attention deficit (and hyperactivity) disorder, to develop dexterity in limbs and fingers (Medical News Today, 2008), and to improve reaction times in the elderly (Dustman Dustman et al., 1992). As the committee heard in the course of preparing for this report, one group is even looking ). at how specialized games can be developed to aid in the neurological development of young children by directly honing specific skills acquired in their formative years in parallel to specific biological devel- opments of their central nervous systems (McBride, 2009). Applying games as a means of improving various aspects of human performance could become a more widespread, determined practice. 6A list of relevant publications related to the impact of gaming on visual development is available at http://www.bcs.rochester. edu/people/daphne/publications.html. Accessed June 4, 2009. 7See Ben’s Game on the Make-a-Wish Foundation Web site, http://www.makewish.org/site/pp.asp?c=bdJLITMAE&b=81924. Last accessed October 15, 2009.

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 THE RISE OF GAMES AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR MODELING AND SIMULATION Communication and Organizational Behavior Most of the outputs discussed thus far have focused on individual change. Games can provide group changes as well. As gamers play together in groups large and small, they gain specific new ideas in how to communicate, organize, and act in adhoc collaborative environments, a skill that will be in increasing demand in a global transient workplace. Productivity One output of game play that is only recently gaining public attention is the idea of productivity (BBC News, 2003; McDonald et al., 2007). This is the notion that using the motivational and interface ). capabilities of video games, tasks, and procedures can be codified and translated into programs that people will interact with in game-like fashion. As a result, the goal is an increase in the productivity of the underlying tasks or a worker’s general daily output. To the extent such work can be harnessed, games may also create entire new forms of work, man- agement, and collaboration. Current examples in this area have included protein folding via the Foldit game at the University of Washington,8 image labeling through the Amazon Mechanical Turk program, and software debugging (Pontin, 2007). Comparing gamers and Nongamers If games are creating different outputs besides just entertainment, then to some extent we might begin to see a difference between avid players of video games and those who do not play them (e.g., “Nintendo surgeons,” described in Satava et al., 1995). While the work has a long way to go, some studies have suggested notable differences between the two groups. For example, Dmitri Williams of the University of Southern California has published data showing that players of some massively multiplayer online games have a higher correlation to lower body mass indices (BMI) than the population at large (Williams et al., 2008). Researchers at the University of Rochester in New york have documented differences in visual processing skills between players and nonplayers of video games (as listed in footnote 6). Educators such as James Paul Gee of Arizona State University, kurt Squire of the University of Wisconsin, and others have repeatedly brought up the differences between how problem solving is treated in games compared to in other more rigid and less forgiving cultures and organizations (Gee, 2003; Squire, 2003). Despite these recognized differences, the direction of causality is not clear. In all these cases, there were significant differences between players and nonplayers but with only theoretical explanations. For example, Williams hypothesizes that the reason players as a population have a lower BMI is that they are exposed to less unhealthy advertising (Williams et al., 2008). Others argue the cause of lower BMI is because hands are more occupied during game play than passive television viewing, leading to reduced intake of snacks (Giammattei et al., 2003). It is also possible that gamers come from higher socioeconomic backgrounds and thus have more healthy food and exercise choices available to them. Clearly there have been many differences between populations of gamers and nongamers, and some may be directly related to game play. For now, however, researchers are still identifying such differences, and much more work is needed to see if the cause itself is video game play. Overall, understanding video games and their outputs is in a state of emergence. The research described here indicates that video games can play a role in affecting human physiology, biology, thought, and capabilities. Gaming advocates argue that it is possible to hone these capabilities and drive them 8Available at http://fold.it/portal/. Last accessed June 29, 2009.

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 GAMES: BEYOND ENTERTAINMENT through gaming to a broad population. Organizations considering games as a tool must pursue specific research goals in order to reach definitive conclusions about the effects of game characteristics on players. Resources can then be properly allocated to produce a game that leverages the desired positive effects on targeted and larger populations. Democratization At their most basic level, games are combinations of software and media developed for consumer- level hardware systems. Games may be considered to offer a form of democratization as they make accessible powerful technologies, interfaces, content, simulation, and possibilities to wider populations of people and reduce hierarchical barriers to access. For example, Microsoft’s Flight Simulator is an extremely capable flight simulation system built for low-cost desktop computers. Twenty years ago it would have cost millions of dollars to get a comparable system; in contrast, today, Flight Simulator is essentially a $30 investment on top of perhaps a $1,000 computer investment. Despite a constant (high) cost for the developer across both scenarios, in the commercial games market that cost is distributed across a broader consumer base. Today’s PlayStation 3 (PS3) and Xbox could power their own flight simulators with great fidelity for under $500. The concept of democratization means that games may hold opportunities for transcendent capabil- ity. Instead of providing small groups of people with basic instruction, it is possible to empower millions to train at a high level of instruction through game-based simulations run on low-end computer and mobile infrastructure. This is essentially the mission some nongovernmental organizations have begun to pursue for games, though without serious funding thus far. Currently, the primary indicator of democratization has been the general spread of electronic entertainment itself. In examining this expansion, though, there are signs that video gaming is reaching populist levels of accessibility. In Japan the sheer volume of people playing brain fitness titles (despite various degrees of demonstrated efficacy) is in the millions (kibb, 2007). Around the world, popular games spread very quickly and spur the creation of well-organized fan communities that create many augmented pieces of information, software, and other content in support of their favorite titles. These communities tend to be self-run even when supported by the software’s developers, offering powerful examples of how gaming communities can rapidly self-organize. Such communal ecosystems are great potential resources, but developers and researchers are still learning to master the delicate balance between self-organized and self-policed communities and those who wish to exploit these communities’ existence for their own purposes. A good example of this is Falcon , where user groups self-organized to modify the simulation and fix all of the bugs after the game was no longer distributed or supported by the publisher. From an early version of the source code that was leaked, the community created its own version of management and configuration control. Interestingly, the original design team detuned some of the flight and weapons capabilities from the game based on concerns that the product had the potential to depict highly sensitive military capabilities. Ironically, the modders fixed many of these weapons and flight capabilities. A group went so far as to organize all of the modifications, licensed the rights from the publisher, and formed its own company. The company commercially republished the game 7 years later under the name Falcon : Allied Force (see Wikipedia references to Falcon 4.0 and Falcon 4: Allied Force). The rereleased version not only had improved graphics and fixed bugs, but the modders also significantly improved the weapons, flight, and artificial intelligence capabilities. The rereleased version was a commercial success and was accomplished without any support from the original development team.

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0 THE RISE OF GAMES AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR MODELING AND SIMULATION SERIOuS gAMES Given the variety of possible outcomes from games, including entertainment, there are subsequently many reasons people play games. The purpose of play can be defined broadly as the interactions created implicitly by the developer/sponsor and those interactions created and communicated explicitly. In the case of most games, the implicit and explicit purpose of the game is entertainment, leisure, pleasure, and/or fun (these words are often used interchangeably by many developers and players but are often interpreted more granularly by researchers). With some games, however, there may be different intents between the explicit purpose of a game and its implicit purposes. The widening uses of games can be grouped into three main categories: • Player-directed: Games are being used by players for purposes besides fun, entertainment, and leisure. • Third-party-directed: Games are being repurposed by third parties (and not the developer or original sponsor) for their agenda (e.g., teachers reusing games like Ciilization to teach history, Madden to coach football, and Flight Simulation to teach pilots). • Deeloper- and sponsor-directed: Games are being created by developers and sponsors from scratch to achieve specific nonentertainment purposes. Including and beyond these three categories, nonentertainment purposes span a much bigger range of situations and desired outputs than commonly assumed (see Table 3-1). Games with these expanded applications are referred to as serious games, a term that arose from books like Serious Games (Abt, 1970) and from the Serious Games Initiative of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars TABLE 3-1 Serious Usage Segments Gamers: Third Party: Developers: Technologies: Serious Stuff Instructor, Commercial, Middleware Gamers Do Therapist, Indie, Serious, and Tool Mentor, and Software and Vendors Leader, or Hardware (hardware and Marketer software) Serious Reset purpose Wii Curriculum Teaching guides Machinima commercial, exergaming development and support off-the-shelf forums (COTS) Modify Revolution PS3 CounterStrike Nonentertainment software or (Neverwinter Folding@home modes of play hardware Nights) Augment Curriculum PowerGrid Linux on PS3 Guitar Hero Sequencer development SmartBrainGames maps for WoW Serious games Virgin XNA Creators Use of Serious game Microsoft ESP development Club, specialized COTS and or Breakaway Independent serious games specialized MOSBE Artist serious game Development development Group SOURCE: Data provided by Ben Sawyer, Digital Mill, Inc., and Peter Smith, Joint ADL Co-Lab.

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44 THE RISE OF GAMES AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR MODELING AND SIMULATION 60 $54 50 $41.7 40 Billions of U.S. $ $31.6 $29 30 $25.4 20 10 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 FIGURE 3-1 Worldwide video games industry revenues from 2004 to 2008. SOURCE: Data derived from http:// vgsales.wikia.com. Global Industry Trends The committee has observed a number of growing global trends in games, as described below. Such trends not only have immediate impact on the pervasiveness and cultural impact of games, but in many cases may open the door for new technologies and applications beyond games. Rise of MMO Games Massively multiplayer online games continue to gain momentum as a force in the market. No single game in the modern era has been more successful than World of Warcraft14 (WoW; Blizzard Entertain- ment, Inc., 2008). WoW (see screenshot in Figure 3-2) is an immersive MMOG in which players band together to complete quests, battle other players, and navigate a complex and ever-changing world. With over 12 million active players and over $1 billion in revenue in 2008 (Securities and Exchange Com- mission, 2009), WoW’s commercial market is on a par with Activision’s total revenue from its console games division. MMO games and their corresponding “persistent worlds” have changed the landscape of gaming in several key ways. Because they are networked and online, they allow players from around the world to play with and compete against each other. WoW also supports multimodal communications, including voice-over-Internet protocol and instant messaging within the game. WoW players organize themselves into guilds that can persist over time and bridge the online and offline worlds. While WoW attracts play- ers from around the globe, it is especially popular in China (Alexander, 2009). The trend of MMO games has several degrees of relevance for national security. On the one hand, games like World of Warcraft can be seen as unmonitored global communication networks that require further analysis. Additionally, massively multiplayer online role-playing games in the context of military war games may provide insights into new effective campaigns for terror, psychological operations, and 14World of Warcraft® is a registered trademark and copyrighted product of Blizzard Entertainment, Inc., and is used with permission.

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45 GAMES: BEYOND ENTERTAINMENT FIGURE 3-2 Screenshot of World of Warcraft. SOURCE: Courtesy of Blizzard Entertainment, Inc. World of War- craft, Warcraft and Blizzard Entertainment are trademarks or registered trademarks of Blizzard Entertainment, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. Image used by permission. All rights reserved. mass reaction to certain catalysts that can be developed in online environments to provide rapid evalua- tion of new tactics, techniques, and procedures. Such opportunities are discussed further in Chapter 4. Games and Transmedia Marketing Discussion earlier in the chapter showed that games often exist as part of a cross- or transmedia entity. Just as games can work to extend plotlines from books and movies, games are used to market and expand access to other media. These games might be specially developed promotional alternate- reality games meant to build awareness for movies (Stephen Spielberg’s A.I.: Artificial Intelligence), albums (Nine Inch Nails’ “Year Zero”), or even other games (e.g., the western-themed digital game Gun was promoted by an online card game tied to the Old West’s saloon culture). Some games serve as a promotional venue for other media, such as the songs used in soundtracks of sports or racing games. Games themselves can be an advertising medium, whether as promotional “advergames” on Web sites or as publishing properties (i.e., certain racing and sports games where marketers’ logos are placed in the stadium or alongside the track). Conversely, Coca Cola riffed on Grand Theft Auto—setting a commercial inside a three-dimensional computer-animated world that resembled the popular video game—in one of its splashier 2006 commercials. Volvo actually used a popular racing game’s graphics to cross-promote its cars and the game in a single broadcast ad.

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 THE RISE OF GAMES AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR MODELING AND SIMULATION Transmedia storytelling also makes sense from a broader economic standpoint. Different media attract different audiences. Films, television, and literary fiction probably have the most diverse audi- ences, while comics and video games have a less diverse audience (though that is certainly beginning to change). A well-conceived and well-crafted transmedia franchise attracts a wider audience by pitching the content differently in the different media (Jenkins, 2006). If each story product offers a fresh experi- ence to the player/reader/user/audience, a crossover market will expand the potential gross within any individual medium. So people who may not play video games but enjoyed the Lord of the Rings movies, for example, might experiment with a related game title. Ultimately, any given product is an entry into the franchise as a whole, providing new levels of insight into the meta-story. Intersection of Social Networks and games As more and more games add online capabilities, players are demanding greater ability to connect and communicate with their fellow players for coordination and socialization. Modern games are begin- ning to embrace the elements of social networking that have been successful, and games themselves have become some of the most popular applications on social networks. According to developer Analytics, 15 as of June 2009, seven of the top 10 daily use applications on Facebook were games. As Facebook, MySpace, Xiaonei, 51.com, and other leading social networks continue to grow in size and scope, these two markets will continue to collide.16 In the course of this integration, gamers find themselves with an increasing number of tools and technologies that allow them to connect with their real-world friends within games and to branch out and make new friends among game players. The ability for gamers to create new, persistent bonds with their fellow gamers makes games more social and a fertile place for users looking to make and deepen friendships. Additionally, businesses may be formed and run by people who have never met in person, who may have met initially through games or other social network applications, and who co-create complex products and collaborate fully from distributed locations. Mobile games Platforms: The Nintendo DS and the iPhone Mobile games have been around since the start of the cell phone era (approximately 1994) but have largely been overshadowed by competing platforms. However, there have been a number of breakthroughs in the past few years that have reinvigorated the mobile games market in several demographics. First, the Nintendo DS (dual screen), shown in Figure 3-3, sold over 100 million units globally in its first four years as a commercial product (Martin, 2009) and has put an innovative, powerful, low-cost game platform into the hands of many people. Nintendo DS developers have found a robust market for games that take advantage of the DS’s capabilities for networking, touchscreen, and innovative game play. The second major development, affecting a much different demographic, has been the launch of the Apple iPhone. The iPhone has proven to be one of the fastest-growing platforms in the mobile space, with 40 million iPod Touch and iPhones in circulation worldwide as of the Apple Worldwide Develop- 15Available at http://www.developeranalytics.com/search_app.php. Accessed June 29, 2009. 16For additional information on the volume of users of some popular social networking Web sites, including Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter, see http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics; http://siteanalytics.compete.com/myspace. com/; and http://www.businessinsider.com/chart-of-the-day-twitter-worldwide-uniques-2009-9. For a monthly comparison of users of MySpace and Facebook, approximately 180 million users overall, see http://siteanalytics.compete.com/myspace. com+facebook.com/. Accessed September 28, 2009.

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 GAMES: BEYOND ENTERTAINMENT FIGURE 3-3 A Nintendo DS handheld console. SOURCE: Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. Image available from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nintendo_DS_Lite_side.jpg. Accessed October 21, 2009. ers Conference in June 2009 (Apple, Inc., 2009). Even more telling, of the roughly 50,000 applications available for download in the Application (or App) Store, roughly 40 percent are games. The iPhone has very advanced technical capabilities—highly accurate global positioning system and location positioning capabilities; 3G (shorthand for the third generation of telephony standards, with the fastest performance available at the time of this publication; and Wi-Fi access, a touchscreen, an accel- erometer, and emerging connections to social networks. The iPhone has all of the ingredients required to become a leading next-generation games platform, and developers are just beginning to explore how to best take advantage of the platform’s capabilities. The recently released 3.0 SDk (software devel- opment kit) for this device has a large number of new application programming interfaces to support games and connections to social media like Facebook and youTube. The Apple business model for the

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 THE RISE OF GAMES AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR MODELING AND SIMULATION iPhone—allowing owners to easily download a wide variety of independently generated applications, including games—has been so successful that it is being copied on other personal electronic devices such as Blackberry and Android-based smart phones. Additionally, a major driver of the iPhone’s suc- cess as a gaming platform is its economic model, where close to 70 percent goes to the game developer and 30 percent to Apple,17 and the disambiguation of the traditional publishers, distributors, and retail- ers. The capital, publication approvals, and marketing barriers to publishing are very low on the iPhone compared to other platforms like the PlayStation Portable and the Dual Screen. This, in turn, has driven a resurgence of mobile games. Mobile games on platforms like the iPhone and its successors put pervasive connectivity and inter- activity into our pockets and with us continually. Such systems may allow a person on the ground to be part of the decision processes explored in online universes. (See Appendix E for a discussion of the mobile games platform for further analysis.) The Microtransaction-Based Business Model The latest business model innovation to hit the games industry is the advent of so-called free-to-play games. The free-to-play games industry allows players to enjoy some portion of a game for free without requiring a subscription or packaged software purchase. Free-to-play games have gained the greatest traction in places such as korea (Ashby, 2009), where games cannot be supported by advertising, game console penetration is low, and broadband connectivity is plentiful. By removing the requirement to pay before playing, free-to-play gaming has allowed the games industry to broaden its market. The free-to-play business model is still in development. At present, most free-to-play games gener- ate revenue by allowing users to purchase in-game items (power-ups, decorative items, etc.) for small amounts of real-world currency (known in the industry as microtransactions). In the aggregate, many small purchases can add up to a very substantial market. Some of the top free-to-play games in korea, such as Nexon’s KartRider and MapleStory franchises, generate $100 million to $200 million in annual revenues (Wagner, 2009). In the United States, zynga is the fastest-growing microtransaction online gaming company, with $50 million in revenue in 2008 and $100 million expected in 2009 (Chowdhry, 2009) via social media games on platforms such as Facebook. The microtransaction phenomenon may become relevant outside the games realm as well. To get around credit card issues for many of these transactions (especially when young people and other popu- lations without credit are factored in), many of these providers earn funds through the sale of prepaid cash cards for their games and by “point” purchases using mobile payment solutions. 18 The growing prevalence of such transactions may change the means by which a particular user can be tracked via trans- actions associated with a specific game account, with ramifications in defense and law enforcement. International Competition in game Development The games business has always had a significant amount of international competition and this is currently on the rise. Japan has arguably been the leader in the home console space since the mid-1980s although it is important to note that the core central processing unit and graphics architecture of all three major systems come from U.S.-based companies (IBM, NVIDIA, AMD) and that the number two 17Information on this economic model can be found on the Apple Web site, http://www.apple.com/iphone/developing-apps- video/. Last accessed November 10, 2009. 18Prepaid cards and “points” also get around some highly litigious patent cabals, driving companies like Microsoft to use them instead of credit cards and direct withdrawals from bank accounts.

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 GAMES: BEYOND ENTERTAINMENT console is now from Microsoft. In the handheld space the console handheld space has been dominated by Japanese companies (Sony and Nintendo), but Apple’s iPod line has become a major entrant in the space and is disrupting what had been a once-stable business for Nintendo especially. The iPhone is also upending what has been a major market for mobile phone handsets previously dominated by a combination of European-led companies (Nokia, Erricson) and korean manufacturers (Samsung, LG) as well as U.S.-based Motorola. In general terms, North America is the largest gaming market in the world, with Europe coming in second and Japan third, but is critically potent in successfully exporting its work to the other markets. Recently, the Japanese games market has slumped, forcing Japanese game makers to look increasingly to the West to raise profits. This has fueled, among other things, SquareEnix’s purchase of U.k.-based SCI/Eidos over U.S. interests such as Warner Brothers. In some respects, despite its dominance in the console space, Japan has increasingly found itself on the defensive recently. As the games industry matures and evolves, its general three-market dominance is also shifting. korea, which has significantly invested in its broadband infrastructure, is becoming a bigger and big - ger player in games, especially in Asia. Its developers have focused largely on multiplayer and massive multiplayer gaming on personal computers (consoles were not allowed in korea until recently because of anti-Japanese import laws and cultural animosity over World War II) and an innovative business model where many core parts of games are given away for free while players who wish to upgrade make many microtransaction purchases for in-game items such as avatar fashions and special power-up items. This business model, now commonly called “Free 2 Play w/Microtransactions,” has lent itself extremely well to lower-income markets in not only Asia but also the United States, where the “tweenage” and teenager market in some respects is a lower-income market. Like korea, China has also seen a robust PC-based games industry thrive. As migration over the past 20 years swamped cities, PC-based gamerooms became the most prevalent form of entertainment because they were easy to set up. Unlike movie theaters, sports stadiums, or amusement parks. PC game rooms and Internet cafes could be set up with no special permits or land requirements. This has given gaming a major infrastructure advantage over other forms of entertainment that Westerners commonly take for granted. Chinese gamers are similar to korean gamers in that they have flocked to major MMOG and multiplayer games on PCs. China’s games development scene has not produced the same level of major export force as korea (which has brought forward major publishers like NC Soft and Nexon) but is quickly rising. Already Chinese studios owned by Japanese and Western interests produce a number of major console titles. China is also home to several partner distributions in the MMOG market, one being The9 Limited, which will likely begin developing and releasing content to the United States and elsewhere eventually. Instant messaging and gaming leader Tencent has an installed base of users that rivals Facebook. Beyond korea and China, Asia also has some rising development tide in Singapore (which has an experimental development lab in conjunction with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Taiwan, and Vietnam. On a more global level, Brazil is starting to become a major market, and is beginning to slowly see established studios providing work. Russia and Eastern Europe have always been a stalwart development market, even if a little uneven in their success rate. India has been one of the more vexing markets for games thus far. Consoles are available and are beginning to sell but remain too expensive for many. Development studios are beginning to see some outsourcing capability, especially for art assets, but most developers and publishers still see more poten- tial than the level of realization they have achieved in China. This may be due to the fact that India’s information technology activity has taken away a lot of programming talent from areas that might be useful for games and also India’s entertainment infrastructure has been more available to others ver-

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0 THE RISE OF GAMES AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR MODELING AND SIMULATION sus what happened in China during the past 20 years. However, it is clear with its deep capabilities in content creation and information technology, India remains a potential force in games and simulation. In fact, with its back-end infrastructure prowess, India may become a major force in corporate games, simulations, and MMOG systems, all of which potentially require the skills housed in giants like Infosys and TATA. The global growth in games has created more open questions of how long the United States may remain in the lead. In general, it is important to realize some underlying truths of the present situation: • In korea one of the most popular games of all time is Blizzard’s Starcraft, a U.S.-made game. In addition EA’s FIFA, which adopts the Free 2 Play model, is doing very well. U.S. companies are adapting to the new business models slowly but with increasing success. This shows that dominance in gaming can quickly cross borders. • In China one of the dominant MMOs is Blizzard’s World of Warcraft, a U.S.-made game. China’s games industry studios are dominated by Western interests, although this may eventually change as local companies begin to arise and compete for talent. • India is far behind in many respects. While expected to catch up, India likely will see much of its first uptake through adoption of popular established games. • Aside from Brazil, much of South America is populated by very small studios that occasionally do work for larger Western interests. • Eastern Europe and Russia are more integrated into the existing Western European games industry structure, with only one or two larger Russian-based interests (e.g., 1C, a Russian games publisher) active beyond a regional level. • The Middle East and Africa are not on the map at all. Middle Eastern investment in university programs for science, information technology, computer science, and the popularity of games with populations skewed so young may provide potential, but so far it is largely unrealized. Pockets of activity have been most visible to the West in the modification of off-the-shelf games for local- ized rhetorical value. These games by all standards of design are poor but on a level of rhetorical value and innovation are fairly high. • Despite Japan’s dominance in console gaming, Microsoft has made key inroads in the market and Apple has with handhelds. It is rumored that Apple may eventually allow games using its App Store model on its AppleTV device, which also could be a game changer in some respects for the console market. As games increasingly become more about services and social models, U.S. companies may see a new wave of offense versus Japanese dominance. The U.S. comeback in this space has been costly, but should be seen as an example not just of U.S. innovation, but more importantly that seemingly entrenched interests in games can be dislodged. What is universally true is that games are becoming a major global entertainment and business phe- nomenon. As tools and techniques easily flow across national boundaries, the ability for new interests to jump into the market is increasing and the effects of that are beginning to take shape. However, the games business at certain echelons is increasingly one of capital and workforce scale, and that allows larger interests wherever based to play significant roles in the face of emboldened local competition. What this shields, however, is whether these increasingly global game concerns dominate with locally produced content and investment or through exported talent and product. It may be that while the names on the door are familiar U.S., European, and Japanese names, they are simply localized talent clusters operating under a familiar name. Talent is the biggest cost in games, and already we are seeing signs of

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 GAMES: BEYOND ENTERTAINMENT global competitive skew in this regard, especially in Canada with its generous subsidies in Quebec and now Ontario. European interests are exceedingly calling for their own subsidies as well, although the current economic climate may hold some of that back. As talent becomes more global, and local tastes and coddled companies emerge, the games busi- ness will undoubtedly be less U.S. centric in both innovation and execution, but for the near term (10 to 20 years) there is a lot of residual momentum and capability to believe that much of that growth will also involve U.S. interests. More important to watch for is not the overall pendulum swings of business dominance but general capability within local economies that can be sourced by government or third- party interests for nonentertainment application. This is already happening. The question will be one of scale and impact as the serious games and SIM side of the equation is given a boost by the general rising tide of interactive entertainment development in regions such as Asia. FINAL THOugHTS There is great potential for serious application if game developers and users utilize what makes games different than other media: they are interactive, engaging, and fun. The serious application of games will help parties reach young people in this country and internationally. There are great potential applications in learning from games. Mayo (2007) found that game-based presentation of material developed by a first-rate development team is better by a factor of 2 than an outstanding lecturer. Research continues to posit various such comparative advantages to learning packaged in modern- day computer game form (Gee, 2003; Shaffer, 2008; Collins and Halverson, 2009). Many of the advan- tages involve key motivational constructs but also new forms of superior pedagogical capability. All of this is more hypothesis than fact while evidence is being gathered in bits and pieces. However, it is worth noting that much of the current belief in games offering comparative advantages for learning and training is grounded in generally posited truths of the effects from multisensory media and the many basic tenants of good learning psychology that games often intrinsically follow (Gee, 2003). Some of the most outwardly daring evangelists of games for teaching come from the viewpoint that games are, in general, naturally more engaging and more attuned to the fundamentals of how people learn than many other means, especially other learning media. Such observations imply that games may one day serve not only as teaching aides but as stand-alone teaching mechanisms that could revolutionize education. While some have posited this notion, it is important to note that a number of leading advocates of games for education in fact see games doing far better among an ecosystem of teachers, mentors, and peers (Shaffer, 2008). This view involves the acceptance of games in various forms of stand-alone teaching but does not acknowledge that it is creating a displacement of mentors, peers, and conventional instructors. Instead, it may be more accurate to describe such ascendency for games as disrupting and realigning the roles of teachers, rather than a simple replacement. Games are visual and interactive and allow the rapid exploration of potential outcomes in fictional worlds. If we plug in real-world news feeds and data, we can explore potential outcomes in real worlds and revolutionize analysis, perhaps even replacing traditional analysts with online games. If we connect those analytic games up to social media, we can build a “hive mind” of understanding of events happen- ing in real time. Moreover, in the greater context of modeling and simulation, games have the power to facilitate improved simulation of human behavior and group dynamics. In short, there is more to games than just play. Shared play and experience becomes part of one’s culture and perhaps a quite formative part. Games are collaborative and indirectly train large numbers of people with command-and-control experience. In the gaming medium, players get to test hypotheses and learn consequences and then internalize those lessons for later application in life. There is an internalized

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 THE RISE OF GAMES AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR MODELING AND SIMULATION postplay culture from any long experience with a particular piece of interactive entertainment. With the right understanding of the diverse components and impact of games, the DoD intelligence community and other parties within and outside the industry may better take advantage of this internalized cultural experience of games. REFERENCES Published Abt, Clark C. 1970. Serious Play. New york: Viking Press. Alexander, Leigh. 2009. WoW China transition to spell downtime, possible user declines. Gamasutra, May 28. Available at http://www.gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story=23810. Accessed July 9, 2009. Apple, Inc. 2009. Apple Reports Second Quarter Results: Best March Quarter Reenue and Earnings in Apple History. April 22. Available at http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2009/04/22results.html. Accessed June 4, 2009. Ashby, Alicia. 2009. korean game portal profits soar on record virtual goods sales. Virtual Goods News, February 16. Avail- able at http://www.virtualgoodsnews.com/2009/02/korean-game-portal-profits-soar-on-record-virtual-goods-sales.html. Accessed July 1, 2009. Axe, David. 2008. America’s army game = brainwashing? Wired, January 29. Available at http://www.wired.com/danger room/2008/01/army-game-worri/. Accessed July 2, 2009. Barnes, T., E. Powell, A. Chaffin, and H. Lipford. 2008. Game2Learn: Improving the motivation of CS1 students. Proceed- ings of the 3rd International Conference on Game Development in Computer Science Education, February 27-March 3, Miami, Florida. BBC News. 2003. Games at work may be good for you. November 7. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technol- ogy/3247595.stm. Accessed July 13, 2009. Blizzard Entertainment, Inc. 2008. World of Warcraft subscriber base reaches 11.5 million worldwide. December 23. Available at http://eu.blizzard.com/en/press/081223.html. Accessed June 5, 2009. Brumels, kirk A., Troy Blasius, Tyler Cortright, Daniel Oumedian, and Brent Solberg. 2008. Comparison of efficacy between traditional and video game based balance programs. Clinical Kinesiology: Journal of the American Kinesiotherapy As- sociation, Winter. Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6810/is_4_62/ai_n31388272/?tag=content;col1. Ac- cessed June 4, 2009. Buxbaum, Peter. 2009. Getting serious about games. Military Training Technology 14(6):14-17. Available at http://www. military-training-technology.com/mt2-archives/212-mt2-2009-volume-14-issue-6/2191-getting-serious-about-games.html. Accessed January 13, 2010. Carter, Chip. 2002. Uncle Sam wants you (to play). St. Petersburg Times, August 12. Available at http://www.sptimes. com/2002/08/19/Technology/Uncle_Sam_wants_you_t.shtml. Accessed July 9, 2009. Chen, M. G. 2009. Communication, coordination, and camaraderie in World of Warcraft. Journal of Games & Culture 4(1):47-73. Chowdhry, Amit. 2009. Social network gaming company zynga pulling in $100 million this year. Pulse, May 3. Available at http://pulse2.com/category/zynga/. Accessed July 9, 2009. Collins, Allan, and Richard Halverson. 2009. Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology: The Digital Reolution and Schooling in America. New york: Teachers College Press. Cowan, Danny. 2009. korean government invests $64M into serious games development. Serious Games Source, May 19. Available at http://www.seriousgamessource.com/item.php?story=23699. Accessed July 9, 2009. Ducheneaut, N., N. yee, E. Nickell, and R. Moore. 2007. The life and death of online gaming communities: A look at guilds in World of Warcraft. Pp. 839-848 in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Bo Begole, Stephen Payne, Elizabeth Churchill, Rob St. Amant, David Gilmore, and Mary Beth Rosson, eds. New york: Association for Computing Machinery. Durlach, N., Gary Allen, Rudy Darken, Rebecca Lee Garnett, Jack Loomis, Jim Templeman, and Thomas E. von Wiegand. 2000. Virtual environments and the enhancement of spatial behavior: Towards a comprehensive research agenda. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Enironments 9(6):593-615. Dustman, Robert E., Rita y. Emmerson, Laurel A. Steinhaus, Donald E. Shearer, and Theodore J. Dustman. 1992. The effects of videogame playing on neuropsychological performance of elderly individuals. Journal of Gerontology 47(3):168-171. Available at http://geronj.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/47/3/P168. Accessed July 13, 2009.

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