She is also a consultant who conducts research on testing and accountability for state and national clients. She has researched and written a number of reports on the No Child Left Behind Act for the Center on Education Policy. Previously she worked on test development for President Clinton’s Voluntary National Testing Initiative at the U.S. Department of Education and served as the coordinator of Connecticut’s statewide high school testing program. She has a Ph.D. in educational psychology from Stanford University.

Stuart W. Elliott (Senior Program Officer) is director of the Board on Testing and Assessment at the National Research Council, where he has worked on a variety of projects related to assessment, accountability, teacher qualifications, and information technology. Previously, he worked as an economic consultant for several private-sector consulting firms. He was also a research fellow in cognitive psychology and economics at Carnegie Mellon University and a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation. He has a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Jane Hannaway is the director of the Education Policy Center at the Urban Institute. She is an organizational sociologist whose work focuses on the study of educational organizations. Her areas of expertise include elementary and secondary schools, employment and education, school and teacher evaluations, standards-based reform, and vouchers. Her recent research focuses on structural reforms in education, particularly reforms promoting accountability, competition, and choice. She was recently appointed director of the Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Databases in Education Research (CALDER) at the Urban Institute. She is a past vice president of the American Educational Research Association and has served on its executive board. She was elected to the Council of the Association for Public Policy and Management. She is past editor of Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, the main policy journal of the American Educational Research Association. She is currently on the executive board of the American Education Finance Association. She has a Ph.D. in the sociology of education from Stanford University.

Judith A. Koenig (Costudy Director) is a senior program officer for the Board on Testing and Assessment. Since 1999, she has directed measurement-related studies designed to inform education policy, including studies on the National Assessment of Educational Progress, inclusion of special needs students in assessment programs, developing assessments for state and federal accountability programs, and setting standards for the National Assessment of Adult Literacy. From 1984 to 1999, she worked

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