Peter B. deMenocal is a professor at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. He uses proxies in marine sediments, primarily stable isotope and trace metal geochemistry, to reconstruct past changes in ocean circulation and terrestrial climate. Recent research projects include Holocene climate and ocean circulation variability, tropical to extratropical paleoclimate linkages, Pliocene-Pleistocene evolution of tropical climates, and human evolution and past African climates. Dr. deMenocal is recognized as one of the leaders of the scientific effort to understand Earth parameters during the time that hominins evolved. He has a B.S. in geology from St. Lawrence University, an M.S. in oceanography from the University of Rhode Island, Graduate School of Oceanography, and a Ph.D. in geology from Columbia University.

Andrew P. Hill is the J. Clayton Stephenson Professor of Anthropology at Yale University, and Curator of Anthropology in the Peabody Museum. Before coming to Yale in 1985, he held research positions at the National Museums of Kenya in Nairobi, and at Harvard. He is interested in the whole range of human evolution, particularly in the environmental and ecological context in which it occurred. Since 1968 he has carried out field work in eastern Africa, in Pakistan, and in the United Arab Emirates. For many years he has directed the Baringo Paleontological Research Project, a multidisciplinary research program operating in the Tugen Hills, Kenya. He teaches courses on different aspects of human evolution, faunal analysis, and taphonomy. Dr. Hill has a B.Sc. (Honouurs) from Reading University and a Ph.D. from the University of London.

Thomas C. Johnson is a Regents Professor of Geological Sciences at the Large Lakes Observatory and the Department of Geological Sciences at the University of Minnesota, Duluth. His research interests include paleoclimatology based on the analysis of lake sediment cores and sedimentological processes in large lakes, focusing mainly on those in the East African Rift Valley. Dr. Johnson was the founding director of the Large Lakes Observatory, and served as a member of the Great Lakes Research Managers Council of the International Joint Commission. He was the cofounder and served on the Steering Committee of the International Decade for East African Lakes (IDEAL) from 1995 to 2005. He is a member of the Board of Directors of the Drilling, Observation and Sampling of Earth’s Continental Crust (DOSECC). He has a B.S. in oceanography from the University of Washington and a Ph.D. in oceanography from the University of California at San Diego.

John E. Kutzbach (NAS) is professor emeritus of atmospheric and oceanic sciences, and environmental sciences in the Gaylord Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Prior to retirement, he was associate director, senior scientist, and professor at the Center for Climatic Research. His research focuses on understanding the processes that control cli

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