3.1

 

Net generation of U.S. electric power industry, 2007,

 

18

3.2

 

Electric generation by fuel in four cases, 2007 and 2030,

 

19

4.1

 

Number of light-duty vehicles in the fleet for the Reference Case,

 

22

4.2

 

On-road fuel economy of vehicles for the Reference Case,

 

22

4.3

 

Types and numbers of light-duty vehicles for the Efficiency Case,

 

22

4.4

 

Fuel economy of new light-duty vehicles for the Efficiency Case,

 

22

4.5

 

Biofuel supply for the Biofuels-Intensive Case,

 

22

4.6

 

Penetration of PHEVs in the U.S. light-duty fleet,

 

23

4.7

 

Number of vehicles for the Portfolio Cases, a mix of PHEVs and efficient ICEVs and HEVs, introduced at the Maximum Practical rate,

 

25

4.8

 

Retail prices for PHEVs for probable and optimistic rates of technology progress, compared to the Reference Case vehicle (conventional ICEV),

 

27

4.9

 

Price of gasoline over time and at electricity price of 8 cents per kilowatt-hour,

 

27

4.10

 

Cash flow analysis for PHEV-10, Maximum Practical Case, Optimistic technical assumptions,

 

28

4.11

 

Gasoline consumption for PHEV-10s or PHEV-40s introduced at Maximum Practical and Probable penetration rates,

 

29

4.12

 

Gasoline use for the Reference Case and the Efficiency Case and when PHEVs are included in an already highly efficient fleet,

 

29

4.13

 

Gasoline use for scenarios that combine efficiency, biofuels, and either PHEVs or HFCVs,

 

30

4.14

 

GHG emissions from the future electric grid,

 

30

4.15

 

GHG emissions for PHEVs at the market penetrations shown in Figure 4.6 for the grid mix estimated by EIA,

 

30

4.16

 

GHG emissions for PHEVs at the market penetrations shown in Figure 4.6 for the grid mix estimated by EPRI/NRDC,

 

30

4.17

 

GHG emissions for cases combining ICEV Efficiency Case and PHEV or HFCV vehicles at the Maximum Practical penetration rate with the EPRI/NRDC grid mix,

 

31

4.18

 

GHG emissions for cases combining ICEV Efficiency Case and PHEV or HFCV vehicles at the Maximum Practical penetration rate with the EIA grid mix,

 

31

4.19

 

GHG emissions for cases combining the ICEV Efficiency Case and PHEV or HFCV vehicles for the EPRI/NRDC grid mix,

 

31

4.20

 

GHG emissions for scenarios combining ICEV Efficiency Case, Biofuels Case, and PHEVs or HFCVs, for the EIA grid mix,

 

31

4.21

 

GHG emissions for scenarios combining ICEV Efficiency Case, Biofuels Case, and PHEVs or HFCVs for the EPRI/ NRDC grid mix,

 

32

C.1

 

Number of vehicles in the Hydrogen Report Reference Case,

 

45

C.2

 

Fuel economy for vehicles in the Hydrogen Report Reference Case,

 

45

C.3

 

Number of vehicles in the ICEV Efficiency Case (Hydrogen Report Case 2),

 

45

C.4

 

Fuel economy for the ICEV Efficiency Case (Hydrogen Report Case 2),

 

45

C.5

 

Biofuel supply for the Biofuels-Intensive Case (Hydrogen Report Case 3),

 

45

C.6

 

Numbers of light-duty vehicles for portfolio approach, where PHEVs are combined with efficient ICEVs and HEVs,

 

45

C.7

 

PHEV operating modes,

 

46

C.8

 

National VMT fraction available for substitution by a PHEV using 100 percent electric charge-depleting mode,

 

47

C.9

 

Tank-to-wheels energy use in advanced vehicles, assuming 44 percent blending during charge-depleting operation,

 

47

C.10

 

Energy consumption in a PHEV-30 as electricity and gasoline for different blending strategies in CD mode,

 

47

C.11

 

Estimated on-road, fleet-average gasoline consumption for ICEVs, HEVs, and PHEVs in this study,

 

48

C.12

 

Estimated fleet-average electricity use over drive cycle for PHEVs in this study,

 

48

C.13

 

Cash flow analysis for PHEV-40, Maximum Practical case, Optimistic technical assumptions,

 

48

C.14

 

Cash flow analysis for PHEV-40, Probable case, Probable technical assumptions,

 

48

C.15

 

Cash flow analysis for PHEV-10, Maximum Practical case, Optimistic technical assumptions,

 

49

C.16

 

Cash flow analysis for PHEV-10, Probable case, Probable technical assumptions,

 

49

C.17

 

Cash flow analysis for mixed case (70 percent PHEV-10s and 30 percent PHEV-40s), Maximum Practical case, Optimistic technical assumptions,

 

49



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