• Other community factors. Poverty and violence are major contributors to health disparities for some racial and ethnic groups.

  • Shorter life spans for future generations. As several speakers noted, if current trends continue, children today will not live as long as their parents do. Studies of foreign-born immigrants and their children who are born in the United States also indicate that the American-born children of immigrants have shorter life spans than their immigrant parents.


The report that follows summarizes the presentations and discussions that occurred during the workshop. Therefore, its scope is limited to the views presented and discussed during the workshop.

Chapter 2 reviews the changing demographics in the United States and in California in particular. E. Richard Brown, using data from the California Health Interview Survey, describes a number of health disparities among individuals in different racial and ethnic groups and notes the importance of having good data to document these disparities. Mindy Fullilove focuses on residential segregation and its history in the United States. She concludes that the ongoing problem of residential segregation is a major contributor to health disparities between people of color and other groups in society.

The concept of framing is covered in Chapter 3. Lori Dorfman defines the term “framing,” describes its origins, and offers examples of how framing works in news stories. Because the ways in which health disparities are framed have consequences for how people address these disparities, it is important to understand framing.

Chapter 4 presents the stories of three different communities in California that have experienced major demographic shifts. Three panels, one for each community, describe how these demographic changes have influenced health outcomes and how framing can lead racial and ethnic subgroups to work together to reduce health disparities. After the presentation of the comments of the three panels, Tony Iton offers his reactions and observations.

Finally, Chapter 5 describes the reports from the group breakout sessions in which the community representatives talked with workshop attendees and Roundtable members about these issues in more detail and concludes with comments from Roundtable Chair, Nicole Lurie.

Several appendixes contain additional information about the workshop. In addition to the meeting agenda (Appendix A) and biographical information about the speakers (Appendix B), Appendix C provides a list of relevant websites that the speakers mentioned in their presentations.

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