Questions? Call 800-624-6242

| Items in cart [0]

PAPERBACK
price:\$42.25

Realizing the Energy Potential of Methane Hydrate for the United States (2010) Board on Earth Sciences and Resources (BESR)

Citation Manager

. "Appendix D: Comparison of Units of Measurement of Amounts of Methane by Volume and Weight." Realizing the Energy Potential of Methane Hydrate for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010.

Please select a format:

 Page 159

The following HTML text is provided to enhance online readability. Many aspects of typography translate only awkwardly to HTML. Please use the page image as the authoritative form to ensure accuracy.

Realize the Energy Potential of Methane Hydrate for the United States

APPENDIX DComparison of Unitsof Measurement ofAmounts of Methaneby Volume andWeight

Amounts of methane can be reported either by volume or by weight. In the petroleum industry, amounts are given by volume, commonly as trillions (1012) of cubic feet (ft3) or TCF and billions (109) of ft3 (BCF) in the United States. Elsewhere in the world, where the metric system is used, the amounts are usually reported in cubic meters (m3). A convenient conversion factor is 35.3 ft3/m3.

In the oceanographic and atmospheric communities, amounts of methane are often reported by weight, that is, grams (g) or metric tons (106 g) usually with an appropriate prefix to simplify the use of exponents. Common expressions are teragrams (Tg = 1012 g), petagrams (Pg = 1015 g), and gigatons (Gt = 109 × 106 or 1015). The conversions from volume to weight or from weight to volume of methane are based on the relationship that a mol of methane, weighing 16 g, has a volume of 22.4 liters at standard temperature and pressure (STP). Useful conversion factors are 714 g/m3 and 20.2 g/ft3.

The following table compares amounts of methane in units of TCF, m3, and Pg in three categories: (1) assessments of amounts of conventional natural gas (methane); (2) estimates of the amounts of methane in methane hydrate; and (3) amounts of methane in the atmosphere.

 Page 159
 Front Matter (R1-R20) Summary (1-12) 1 Methane Hydrate Research in the United States (13-30) 2 State of the Science: Recent Advances and Current Challenges in Methane Hydrate Research (31-82) 3 Review of Central Research Efforts Within the Methane Hydrate Research and Development Program (83-108) 4 Coordinating Process for the Methane Hydrate Research and Development Program (109-132) 5 Conclusions and Recommendations (133-138) Appendixes (139-140) Appendix A: Legislative Authorization Language H.R. 6 – Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 968. Methane Hydrate Research (141-148) Appendix B: Committee and Staff Biographical Sketches (149-156) Appendix C: Presentations to the Committee (157-158) Appendix D: Comparison of Units of Measurement of Amounts of Methane by Volume and Weight (159-160) Appendix E: Program Authorizations and Appropriations FY 2000-2010 (161-162) Appendix F: Project Summary Table (163-184)

Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 159
Realize the Energy Potential of Methane Hydrate for the United States APPENDIX D Comparison of Units of Measurement of Amounts of Methane by Volume and Weight Amounts of methane can be reported either by volume or by weight. In the petroleum industry, amounts are given by volume, commonly as trillions (1012) of cubic feet (ft3) or TCF and billions (109) of ft3 (BCF) in the United States. Elsewhere in the world, where the metric system is used, the amounts are usually reported in cubic meters (m3). A convenient conversion factor is 35.3 ft3/m3. In the oceanographic and atmospheric communities, amounts of methane are often reported by weight, that is, grams (g) or metric tons (106 g) usually with an appropriate prefix to simplify the use of exponents. Common expressions are teragrams (Tg = 1012 g), petagrams (Pg = 1015 g), and gigatons (Gt = 109 × 106 or 1015). The conversions from volume to weight or from weight to volume of methane are based on the relationship that a mol of methane, weighing 16 g, has a volume of 22.4 liters at standard temperature and pressure (STP). Useful conversion factors are 714 g/m3 and 20.2 g/ft3. The following table compares amounts of methane in units of TCF, m3, and Pg in three categories: (1) assessments of amounts of conventional natural gas (methane); (2) estimates of the amounts of methane in methane hydrate; and (3) amounts of methane in the atmosphere.

OCR for page 160
Realize the Energy Potential of Methane Hydrate for the United States TABLE D.1 Comparison of Methane Measurements   TCF By Volume, m3 By Weight, Pg Conventional natural gas (Methane)a       Global assessment of conventional methane in reserves and technically recoverable resources 16,000 4.4 × 1014 3.2 × 102 U. S. methane consumption in 2008 23 6.5 × 1011 4.7 × 10−1 Methane in methane hydrateb       Very early global estimates, based on many erroneous assumptions, of the methane content of gas hydrate ~35,000,000 ~1018 ~7.1 × 105 Recent range of global estimates of methane in methane hydrate 35,000 to 177,000 1 × 1015 to 5 × 1015 7.1 × 102 to 3.6 × 103 Mean MMS estimate of methane in hydrate in the Gulf of Mexico 21,000 6 × 1014 4.3 × 102 Mean U. S. Geological Survey estimate of technically recoverable methane from hydrate on the North Slope of Alaska 85.4 2.4 × 1012 1.7 Estimate of methane in hydrate, eastern Nankai Trough, Japan 40 1.14 × 1012 8.1 × 10−1 Atmospheric methanec       Atmospheric abundance of methane ~250 ~7 × 1012 ~5 Estimate of total global flux of methane from all sources entering the atmosphere per year 30 8.4 × 1011 0.6 Estimate of total global sink for all methane entering the atmosphere per year 29 8.1 × 1011 0.58 aSee Chapter 1. bSee Chapter 2. cFor discussion, see Kvenvolden, K. A. and B. W. Rogers. 2005. Gaia’s breath—global methane exhalations. Marine and Petroleum Geology 22: 579- 590.