TABLE 4-4 Mental and Behavioral Disorders








Black et al., 2004b (Vol. 4)

Population-based interview study, by telephone; stratified random sample with proportional allocation (Iowa Persian Gulf Study Group, 1997)

1896 deployed vs 1799 nondeployed veterans listing Iowa as home state at time of enlistment

PRIME-MD (major depression, panic disorder, GAD) PCL-M, combat exposure assessed in basic demographic questionnaire. CAGE questionnaire (alcohol abuse)

Panic disorder (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-3.8); GAD (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.5-4.1); PTSD (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.0); any anxiety disorder (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5)

Age, sex, race, branch of military, rank, military status, prior mental-health condition

Large, population-based sample

Barrett et al., 2002 (Vol. 4)

Population-based survey; completed telephone survey about their health status

3682 GWVs and control subjects

PCL-M, SF-36

Persons screened positive for PTSD more likely to have been deployed to Gulf War (OR 2.02, 95% CI 0.97-4.23)

PTSD associated with: Current smoking status (OR 3.83, 95% CI 1.40-10.46)

Number of self-reported symptoms (19.83 symptoms with PTSD vs 3.64 with no PTSD, p < 0.0001)

Number of medical conditions (1.73 conditions with PTSD vs with no PTSD 10.18)

Lower SF-36 scores for physical functioning (93 vs 66, p < 0.0001) and general health (80 vs 33, p < 0.0001)

Deployment status, age, sex, race, rank, branch, military status, and smoking status

Brief PTSD screen used; used 50 as the cutoff score with the PCL-M; low number of subjects who screened positive for PTSD; the sample from Iowa might not be representative of all US military personnel

Black et al., 2004a (Vol. 4)

Nested case-comparison; face-to-face interviews

602 veterans and controls

SCID (face-to-face interviews); SNAP; SF-36; Whitely Index

PTSD (27% vs 5% in deployed vs controls, OR 7.1, 95% CI 2.1-24.2); anxiety disorders (52% vs 25%, OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.6-6.3); any disorder (68% vs 52%, OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.7)

Validated PTSD checklist against SCID (70.4% sensitivity and 86.2% specificity of questionnaire


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement