for the 192/602 subjects who met the criteria for depression)


Kang et al., 2003 (Vol. 4)

Cross-sectional; population-based stratified random sample of GWV deployed compared with those deployed elsewhere

11,441 deployed vs 9476 nondeployed

Mail survey and telephone-based survey of PTSD symptoms

GWV (12.1%) compared to era veterans (4.3%); OR 3.1 (95% CI 2.7-3.4)

Sex, age, marital status, rank, and unit component

Nationally representative sample, questionnaire only

Wolfe et al., 1999a,b; Proctor et al., 1998 (Vol. 4)

Cross-sectional survey and interviews from larger cohorts followed longitudinally

220 Fort Devens vs 73 New Orleans vs 48 Germany; New Orleans and Germany cohorts only studied at time 2

Health Symptom Checklist, Mississippi PTSD Scale (times 1 and 2), SCID, CAPS (clinician diagnostic interviews, time 2 only)

Risk factors for PTSD were being female (time 1 OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9-5.5; time 2 OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5) and having high combat exposure (time 1 OR 1.22, time 2 OR 1.12, p < 0.05 for both); PTSD also highly correlated with current major depression (r = 0.35, p < 0.001) Lifetime occurrence of PTSD more prevalent in Fort Devens (8.1%) and New Orleans (7.6%) vs Germany (0%), no p-value reported Prevalence of PTSD increased from time 1 (3%) to time 2 (8%) in Fort Devens, 2% of the study group had PTSD at both time 1 and time 2, 1% had PTSD at time 1 but not time 2, and 6% had PTSD at time 2 but not time 1

Sex, reported health symptoms

Small sample deployed to Germany, 78% participation rate; Wolfe et al., 1999b, used direct interviews

Brailey et al., 1998 (Vol. 4)

Longitudinal; psychological interviews 9 months after war,

876 deployed (349 at time 2, 16 months later) vs 396

BDI-II, State Anger; State Anxiety; the BSI Depression; BSI Anxiety; BSI

Prevalence of depression increased over time in deployed veterans from time 1 (6.9%) to time 2 (13.8%), as did prevalence of PTSD (2.3% to

Age, education

Large attrition by time 2 (39.8% response rate at follow-up)

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