Ismail et al., 2002 (Update)

Two-phase cohort study

Random sample of UK GWVs with reported disability (n = 111) and no disability (n = 98) and era and Bosnia veterans with disability (n = 54) and no disability (n = 79); Disability defined as score < 72.2 on SF-36

DSM-IV disorders assessed during clinician-administered interview

Disabled GWVs compared to disabled controls: No increase in prevalence of any mental disorder except undifferentiated somatoform disorder (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.0-9.6)


Response rate good in GWV (67% disabled and 62% non-disabled), but low in controls (55% and 43%) Strength: clinician administered interview

Fiedler et al., 2006 (Update)

Cross-sectional, random sampling of all US troops deployed vs nondeployed (era veterans); assessment by computer-assisted telephone interview

967 deployed vs 784 nondeployed veterans


Deployed veterans had significantly higher 12-month prevalence of any psychiatric disorder compared to nondeployed, (26.1% vs 16.1%, p < 0.05)

Increase in major depressive disorder (14.2% vs 7.2% for males and 25.3% vs 11.8% for females) and PTSD (3.4% vs 0.7% for males and 4.0% vs 2.2% for females), no p-value reported

All deployed vs all controls: Any anxiety disorder (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.34-2.45); depression (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.50-2.85)

Males: alcohol dependence (4.8% vs 3.3%, NS); drug dependence (1.2% vs 0.0% p < 0.05)


Response rate 59% for deployed, 51% for era veterans Female gender, divorced, and lower rank were significant independent risk factors

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