Toomey et al., 2007 (Update)

Cross-sectional survey; stratified random sample of deployed vs nondeployed veterans; structured interview, self-report of symptoms

1061 deployed vs 1128 nondeployed US veterans (same cohort as Eisen et al., 2005)


Gulf War era onset: PTSD (6.2% deployed vs 1.1%, nondeployed), (OR 5.78, 95% CI 2.6-12.7); non-PTSD anxiety disorders (4.3% deployed vs 1.4% nondeployed), (OR 3.79, 95% CI 1.8-8.0); major depression (7.1 % deployed vs 4.1% nondeployed), (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.0-3.2)

Age, sex, ethnicity, years of education, duty type (active vs reserve/guard), service branch, rank

Response rate: 53% for deployed; 39% for nondeployed Prevalence of non-PTSD anxiety disorders significantly higher in deployed (12.5%) vs nondeployed (9.2%), p = 0.02





10 years post-Gulf War era: PTSD (1.8% vs 0.06% deployed vs nondeployed, p = 0.12); non-PTSD anxiety disorders (2.8% vs 1.2% deployed vs nondeployed, p = 0.01); major depression (3.2% deployed vs 0.8% nondeployed, p = 0.01) Symptom self report: deployed reported more severe symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety; lower level quality of life; SF-36 scores significantly lower


Al-Turkait and Ohaeri, 2008 (Update)

Retrospective Cohort; stratified random sampling of four groups of veterans: retired from military prior to war; active duty with no combat; active duty with combat; POW

200 Kuwaiti Gulf War veterans, 50 from each group

PTSD, determined by CAPS

POWs: 48.4%

Combat: 32%

No combat: 22%

Retired: 24%

Higher rates of anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem in those with PTSD compared to those without PTSD (p = 0.0001)


Potential bias resulting from application of questionnaire to a foreign population

NOTES: BAI = Beck Anxiety Inventory; BDI-II = Beck Depression Inventory; BSI = Bried Symptom Inventory; CAPS = Clinician Administered PTSD scale; CES = Combat Exposure Scale; CIDI = Composite International Diagnostic Interview; GAD = generalized anxiety disorder; GWV = Gulf War veteran; HSC = Health Symptoms Checklist; NS = not significant; PCL-M = PTSD Checklist-Military Version; POW = prisoner of war; PRIME-MD = Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders; PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder; QoLI = Quality of Life Inventory; SCID = Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders; SF-36 = 36-Item Short Form Health Survey; SNAP = Special Needs Assessment Profile.

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