covariate to account for changing hospitalization methods, diagnostic criteria, and procedures


Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)

Eisen et al., 2005 (Vol. 4)

Population-based, cross-sectional, prevalence, in-person medical and psychiatric evaluations

1061 GWVs vs 1128 NDVs; selected from among those who had participated in 1995 National Health Survey of Gulf War Era Veterans and Their Families (mail and telephone survey) (Kang et al., 2000)

CFS based on in-person interviews according to CDC CFS criteria and exclusionary diagnoses from history, interviews, examinations, laboratory testing

OR 40.6, 95% CI 10.2-161.2

Age, sex, race, smoking, duty type, service branch, rank

Low participation rates (53% of deployed and 39% of nondeployed), but analysis of nonparticipants and participants reveals that participants, both deployed and nondeployed, are more likely to report symptoms of CFS

Kelsall et al., 2006 (Update)

Cross-sectional survey

1424 Australian male GWVs, 1548 male NDVs frequency matched by age and service type (Same population as Kelsall et al., 2004a,b, 2005)

Association of unexplained chronic fatigue and CFS determined in clinical assessment with self-reported exposure to various stressors

CFS in deployed veterans vs control groups OR 1.2 (95% CI 0.5-2.9) Chronic fatigue (≥ 6 months) OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.4-2.7) 91 (6.6%) GWVs had unexplained chronic fatigue vs 40 (2.9%) of controls (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.4) Unexplained chronic fatigue in GWVs associated with PB (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3-6.1), oil smoke (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.4), pesticides (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.53.8), presence in chemical weapons area (OR 4.6, 95% CI

Age, service branch, rank; also education, marital status, smoking, and alcohol use for unexplained chronic fatigue.

Relatively large study with national ascertainment; response rate 80.5% for deployed, 56.8% for nondeployed Exposures self-reported; possible recall bias

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