2.7-7.8), and deployed during air war (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.5)



Ismail et al., 2008 (Update)

Two-phase cohort study; first phase population-based postal survey, second phase random sample of disabled phase 2 responders

111 deployed GWVs; 133 era veterans, including Bosnia peacekeepers; must have physical disability (less than 72.2 on SF-36 physical functioning scale from phase 1 survey) (Population derived from Unwin et al., 1999, and Ismail et al., 2002)

CFS determined through clinical assessment using CDC criteria

20 disabled GWVs (18%) and 4 disabled controls (3%), OR 7.8, 95% CI 2.5-24.5

Age, sex, rank, marital status, alcohol-disorders, selection bias via probability weights

Phase 1 response rate 70% for GWVs, 60% and 63% for Bosnia and era veterans, respectively. Phase 2 response rate 67% for GWVs, 55% and 43% for Bosnia and era veterans, respectively. 54% of GWVs with CFS had concomitant depression or anxiety disorder

NOTE: CCEP = Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program; CDC = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; CFS = chronic fatigue syndrome; CI = confidence interval; CMI = chronic multisymptom illness; COSHPD = California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development; CWP = chronic widespread pain; DMDC = Defense Manpower Data Center; DoD = Department of Defense; DU = depleted uranium; GWV = Gulf War veteran; NDV = nondeployed veteran; OR = odds ratio; PB = pyridostigmine bromide; PMR = personal medical record; VA = Department of Veterans Affairs.

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