Limited/Suggestive Evidence of an Association

Some evidence of an association between deployment to the Gulf War and a health outcome in humans exists, but this is limited in that substantial doubt exists regarding chance, bias, and confounding.

  • ALS.

  • Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain.

  • Self-reported sexual difficulties.

  • Mortality from external causes, primarily motor vehicle accidents, in the early years after deployment.

Inadequate/Insufficient Evidence to Determine Whether an Association Exists

The available studies are of insufficient quality, validity, consistency, or statistical power to permit a conclusion regarding the presence or absence of an association between deployment to the Gulf War and a health outcome in humans.

  • Any cancers.

  • Disorders of the blood and blood forming organs.

  • Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases.

  • Neurocognitive and neurobehavioral performance.

  • Multiple sclerosis.

  • Other neurologic outcomes, such as Parkinson’s disease, dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease.

  • Cardiovascular disorders.

  • Respiratory diseases.

  • Structural gastrointestinal diseases.

  • Skin diseases.

  • Musculoskeletal disorders.

  • Other specific conditions of the genitourinary system.

  • Specific birth defects.

  • Adverse pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and low birth weight.

  • Fertility problems.

Limited/Suggestive Evidence of No Association

There are several adequate studies, covering the full range of levels of exposure that humans are known to encounter, that are mutually consistent in not showing an association between exposure to a specific agent and a health outcome at any level of exposure. A conclusion of no association is inevitably limited to the conditions, levels of exposure, and length of observation covered by the available studies. In addition, the possibility of a very small elevation in risk at the levels of exposure studied can never be excluded.

  • Peripheral neuropathy.

  • Mortality from cardiovascular disease in the first 10 years after the war.

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