chemical-protective clothing, lack of sleep, crowding, lack of private time, physical workload, and boredom. Significant levels of stress continued postdeployment (Stretch et al., 1996a). Another publication examined PTSD in this cohort (Stretch et al., 1996b). The prevalence of PTSD symptoms was measured by the Impact of Event Scale and the Brief Symptom Inventory.
A study by Sutker et al. (1995) and colleagues analyzed psychologic outcomes in a cohort of New Orleans reservists (n = 1520). The cohort consisted of Louisiana National Guard and reservists from the army, air force, and navy who had been deployed to combat. Of the 1272 who responded (overall response rate of 83.7%), 876 had been deployed and 396 had not been deployed. A discriminant function model was used to assess the relationship between personal and environmental resources and psychological outcomes. Low personality hardiness, high avoidance coping, and low perceived family cohesion were the personality and coping factors found to increase the likelihood of PTSD (Sutker et al., 1995).
One derivative study of Sutker et al. (1995) was identified. Assessed by survey at an average of 9 months (time 1) after the war, veterans completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Brief Symptom Inventory for Anxiety and Depression, the PTSD checklist, and the Mississippi Scale for PTSD (Brailey et al., 1998). See Chapter 4 for more detail.
Ang, D. C., P. M. Peloso, R. F. Woolson, K. Kroenke, and B. N. Doebbeling. 2006. Predictors of incident chronic widespread pain among veterans following the first Gulf War. Clinical Journal of Pain 22(6):554-563.
Barrett, D. H., C. C. Doebbeling, D. A. Schwartz, M. D. Voelker, K. H. Falter, R. F. Woolson, and B. N. Doebbeling. 2002. Posttraumatic stress disorder and self-reported physical health status among U.S. Military personnel serving during the gulf war period: A population-based study. Psychosomatics 43(3):195-205.
Black, D. W., B. N. Doebbeling, M. D. Voelker, W. R. Clarke, R. F. Woolson, D. H. Barrett, and D. A. Schwartz. 1999. Quality of life and health-services utilization in a population-based sample of military personnel reporting multiple chemical sensitivities. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 41(10):928-933.
Black, D. W., B. N. Doebbeling, M. D. Voelker, W. R. Clarke, R. F. Woolson, D. H. Barrett, and D. A. Schwartz. 2000. Multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome: Symptom prevalence and risk factors in a military population. Archives of Internal Medicine 160(8):1169-1176.
Black, D. W., C. P. Carney, V. L. Forman-Hoffman, E. Letuchy, P. Peloso, R. F. Woolson, and B. N. Doebbeling. 2004a. Depression in veterans of the first Gulf War and comparable military controls. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry 16(2):53-61.